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Title: 彭真在中共延安整風運動中的角色和活動(1941-1945)
Peng Zhen's Roles and Activities in the Yan'an Rectification Movement of the Chinese Communist Party (1941-1945)
Authors: 鍾延麟
Chung, Yen-Lin
Keywords: 彭真;延安整風;審幹運動;搶救運動;毛澤東
Peng Zhen;Yan'an Rectification Movement;Cadre Examination Movement;Rescue Campaign;Mao Zedong
Date: 2018-05
Issue Date: 2018-08-21 14:31:29 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 關於彭真在中共延安整風運動中的角色和作用問題,中共官方的相關論述往往是避重就輕,以保持其崇高的形象;學界雖然對之有所注意,但也無一專題研究。本文指出:毛澤東領導延安整風的過程中,彭真是其倚重的一名要角。在中央高層整風方面,彭真雖然黨內資歷和地位並不突出,但強力地協助毛對所謂的「教條主義者」和「經驗主義者」進行政治批判和施壓,也為毛製造出場善後、收攏人心的機會。在中央黨校整風方面,彭真對在校學習的高級幹部和各地代表致力推銷以毛為具體化身的正確路線,唾棄與之對立的錯誤路線和人士,從而鍛鍊、監製一批對毛忠誠不貳的高階「馴服工具」,作為其後續對內領導和對外統治的中堅骨幹。彭真在整風期間展開的審幹運動中(特別在中央黨校),由於對敵情的失實估計和對敵特滲透政策的偏聽輕信,再加上採取訴諸群眾運動、私刑逼供的審幹方式,一度造成錯整冤枉、傷害無辜的惡性局面。本文首度重建了彭真主持黨校審幹的相關政治過程和細節。彭真賣力投入延安整風運動,鼎力助毛在黨內取得如日中天的領導地位;此一運動影響及其模式,後來不但長期籠罩中共政治,終而也讓彭真在政治上遭受滅頂之災。
The Yan'an Rectification Movement initiated by Mao Zedong was a very important event in Chinese Communist Party (CCP) history. It successfully unified the Party under Mao's leadership, and helped the Party to compete with and eventually defeat the Nationalist Party. In this event, another CCP leader, Peng Zhen, played a significant role. However, the CCP's official biographies of Peng intentionally avoided discussing his action on sensitive issues such as the intra-Party political struggle and the controversial rescue campaign. Independent academic works have long noted Peng's crucial roles in the political movement. However, given the limited material and information available, there has been no detailed study related to the issue. Based on newly available materials and recent interviews, this study demonstrates that Peng was one of Mao's trusted subordinate during the Yan'an Rectification Movement. After Mao Zedong launched the Rectification Movement, Peng acted as an enthusiastic supporter who harshly criticized the targets of the movement, including "dogmatists" such as the Soviet-trained leaders Wang Min and Bo Gu and "empiricists" such as senior leader Zhou Enlai and military leader Peng Dehuai. In doing so, Peng assisted Mao in intimidating these targeted politicians and other high-ranking cadres to surrender to Mao and accept Mao's position as the Party's preeminent leader. Furthermore, Mao relied heavily on Peng to conduct the Rectification Movement and the cadre examination movement of the Central Party School, where many important Party cadres and local delegates of the Party's Seventh Congress studied. Peng endeavored wholeheartedly to carry out Mao's related policies, contributed greatly to Mao's cult of personality, and successfully cultivated a group of loyal Maoists. However, during the above process of radical rescue campaign in the Central Party School many cadres were wrongfully persecuted based on false accusations. While Mao was undoubted responsible for the wrongdoings, Peng was also equally responsible. Yan'an Rectification Movement deeply influenced Chinese politics under the CCP rule after 1949. As a vanguard of the movement, Peng eventually suffered from its backlash personally.
Relation: 國立政治大學歷史學報 , 49, 39-91
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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