Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: 非政府組織、聯合國與兒童教育權之研究
NGOs, the UN and Children's Right to Education
Authors: 陳瑋翎
Chen, Weiling
Contributors: 姜家雄
Chiang, Alex
Weiling Chen
Keywords: 非政府組織
The UN
Education for All (EFA)
Global partnership for education (GPE)
Public-private partnerships (PPPs)
Date: 2018
Issue Date: 2018-08-29 16:02:22 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究目的「公共私營合作制」(Public-Private Partnerships)為框架分析聯合國與非政府組織於實踐兒童教育權議題上的合作與互動。為達上述研究目的,本研究檢視非政府組織自第一次世界大戰來於倡議兒童教育權議題上所扮演的角色,並進一步分析公民社會團體如何與聯合國合作,並在該議題上成為聯合國體系的一部分。本文研究聯合國發起之「全民教育運動」,並分析一非政府租織”Global Campaign for Education” (GCE) 在世界銀行組織提出的資金計劃「全球教育夥伴關係計畫」(Global Partnership for Education)中扮演之倡議與執行之角色,並以該計劃實施於肯亞之結果作為案例研究。經研究結果發現,在「公共私營合作制」的研究架構下,非政府組織在聯合國體系中扮演實踐全民教育倡議與執行之角色,並成為該議題相關行為者中實踐兒童初等教育的關鍵角色。
This research aims to analyze the relationship between the UN, NGOs and the realization of children’s right to education. It examines the roles of NGOs in the advocacy of children’s right to education and how the civil society have adapted to become part of the UN system. To understand the course of the UN initiated Education for All (EFA) campaign, a detailed chronology of relevant events is provided, and the role of the Global Campaign for Education (GCE) in the financing mechanism Global Partnership for Education (GPE) is analyzed as a case study. I conclude that the civil society actors have become relatively influential in the public-private partnerships (PPPs) constructed by the UN and its partners in the Education for All (EFA) campaign.
Reference: Reference
Alan, F. (1998). A Strategic Review of the United Nations Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS): Final Report. Geneva: Non-Governmental Liaison Service.
Alger, C. (2002). The emerging role of NGOs in the UN system: from article 71 to a people’s millennium assembly. Global Governance, 8(1), 93-117.
Amin, S. (1997). Capitalism in the Age of Globalization. London: Zed Press.
Andonova, L. B. & Levy, M. A. (2003). Franchising Global Governance: Making Sense of the Johannesburg Type II Partnerships. In O.S. Stokke and Ø.B. Thommerssen (Eds). Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development. London: Earthscan Publishing.
Andonova, L. B. (2006). Globalization, Agency and institutional Innovation: the Rise and fall of public-private partnerships in global governance. Goldfarb Center Working Paper, 2006: 004.
Avenstrup, R., Liang, X., & Nellemann, S. (2004). Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi and Uganda: Universal Primary Education and Poverty Reduction. A Case Study from Reducing Poverty, Sustaining Growth—What Works, What Doesn’t, and Why—A Global Exchange for Scaling up Success. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Barnett, M. (1999). Culture, strategy, and foreign policy change: Israel’s road to Oslo. European Journal of International Relations, 5, 5–36.
Boli J. & Thomas G.M. (1999). INGOs and Organization of World Culture. In J. Boli & G.M. Thomas (Eds.), Constructing World Culture: International Nongovernmental Organizations Since 1875 (pp. 13-49). Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Black, M. (1986). The Children and the Nations: the Story of UNICEF. Sydney: Potts Point.
Black, M. (1996). Children First: The Story of UNICEF Past and Present. New York: Oxford University Press.
Birdsall, Levine, & Ibrahim. (2005). Towards Universal Primary Education: investments, incentives, and institutions. European Journal of Education, 40 (3), 337-349.
Birdsall, N. & Vaishnav, M. (2005). Financing development: challenges for the millennium development goals. Journal of International Affairs, 58(2), 257-264.
Bruns, Mingat, & Rakotomalala (2003). Achieving Universal Primary Education by 2015: A Chance for Every Child. Washington DC: The World Bank.
Butts, M. (1944). The International Bureau of Education. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 235 (1), 10-16.
Cambridge Education, Mokoro, and Oxford Policy Management. (2010). Mid‐Term Evaluation of the EFA Fast Track Initiative, Final Synthesis Report Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge Education, Mokoro, and Oxford Policy Management.
Campbell, J. (2005). Where Do We Stand? Common Mechanisms in Organizations and Social Movements Research. In G. F. Davis, D. McAdam, R.W. Scott, & M. N. Zald (Eds.), Social Movements and Organization Theory (pp. 41–68). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Chabbott, C. (2003). Constructing Education for Development: International Organizations and Education for All. New York: Routledge.
Checkel, J. T. (1998). The constructivist turn in international relations theory. World Politics, 50, 324-348.
Coleman, D. & Jones, P. W. (2005). The United Nations and Education Multilateralism, development, and Globalization. New York: Routledge.
Collingwood, V. (2006). Non-governmental organizations, power and legitimacy in international society. Review of International Studies, 32, 439-454.
Cooley, A, and Ron, J. (2002).The NGO scramble: organizational insecurity and the political economy of transnational action. International Security, 27, 5-39.
Cronin, B. (2002). The two faces of the United Nations: the tension between intergovernmentalism and transnationalism. Global Governance, 8(1), 53-71.
CSEF. (2014). Programe Update and Results. Retrieved from:
Culey, C., Martin, A. & Lewer, D. (2007). Global Campaign for Education: 2007 Mid-term Review. London: Firetail Limited.
Cusimano, M. L. (2003). Nongovernmental Organizations: Politics beyond Sovereignty. In M. L. Cusimano. (Ed). Beyond Sovereignty: Issues for a Global Agenda, 2nd Edition (pp.71-94). Belmont: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
DeMars, W. E. (2005). NGOs and Transnational Networks: Wild Cards in World Politics. London: Pluto Press.
Donnelly, E. A. (2007). Making the case for Jubilee: the catholic church and the poor-country debt movement. Ethics and International Affairs, 21, 107-133.
Droux, J. (2013) From Inter-Agency Concurrences to Transnational Collaborations: The ILO Contribution to Child Welfare Issues during the Interwar Years. In S. Kott & J. Droux (Eds.), Globalizing Social Rights: The International Labour Organization and Beyond. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Edwards, M. (2011). Introduction: Civil Society and the Geometry of Human Relations. In M. Edwards (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Civil Society (pp.3-14). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
EYC. (2013). Every Child Needs A Teacher. Retrieved from:
EYC. (2014). Education Sector Planning. Retrieved from:
Fass, P. (2011). A Historical Context for the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 633(1), 17- 29.
Fuchs, E. (2007). Children’s rights and global civil society. Comparative Education, 43 (3), 393–412.
GCE. (2012a). Every Child Needs a Teacher: Closing the Trained Teacher Gap. Retrieved from:
GCE. (2012b). A more Ambitious, Effective Global Partnership for Education: Three Priorities for the Next Phase of Reform. Retrieved from:
GCE. (2014). Civil Society Advocacy: Good Practice Case Studies from Africa. Retrieved from:
GCE. (2018). Global Action Week for 2018: “Accountability for SDG4 through Citizen Participation” (
Gilpin, R. (2002). A Realist Perspective on International Governance. In A. McGrew and D. Held (Eds.), Governing Globalization: Power, Authority and Global Governance (pp.237-248). Oxford: Blackwell Publisher.
Gordenker, L. & Weiss, T.G. (1996). Pluralizing global governance: analytical approaches and dimensions. In L. Gordenker & T.G. Weiss (Eds.), NGOs, the UN, and Global Governance (pp. 17-46). Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
GPE. (2003). Appraisal Report: Vietnam. Retrieved from:
GPE. (2012a). Strategic Plan 2012-2015. Retrieved from:
GPE. (2012b). Making Education Aid More Effective: Monitoring Exercise on Aid Effectiveness in the Education Sector. Retrieved from:
GPE. (2012c). Regional and National Civil Society Education Funds – CSEF: Evaluation Report. Retrieved from:
GPE. (2015). Project appraisal document for a GPE grant to Kenya. May 20015. Retrieved from:
Haas, E. B. (1958). The Uniting of Europe: Political Social, and Economic Forces 1950-1957. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Haas, P.M. (1992) Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination. International Organization, 46(1), 1-35.
Haddad, H.N. (2013) After the norm cascade: NGO mission expansion and the coalition for the international criminal court. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 19(2), 187-206.
Hocking, B. (2004). Privatizing diplomacy? International Studies Perspectives, 5, 147-152.Jenkins, C. J. (2006). Nonprofit Organizations and Political Advocacy. In W. W. Powell & R. Steinberg (Eds.), The Non Profit Sector: A Research Handbook (pp. 307-332). New Haven: Yale University Press.
Joachim, J. (2003). Framing issues and seizing opportunities: The UN, NGOs, and women’s rights. International Studies Quarterly, 47, 247-74.
Joachim J. & Locher, B. (2009) Transnational Activism in the UN and the EU. In J. Joachim & B. Locher (Eds.), Transnational Activism in the UN and the EU (pp. 3-18). London and New York: Routledge.
Jones, P. (1988). International Policies for Third World Education: UNESCO, Literacy, and Development. New York: Routledge.
Kaiser, K. (1971). Transnational Relation as a Threat to the Democratic Process. In R.O.Keohane and J.S. Nye. (Eds.), Transnational Relations and World Politics (pp.356-370). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Katzenstein, P. J. (Ed.). (1996). The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics. New York: Columbia University
Keck, M, E. and Sikkink K. (1998). Activists Beyond Borders. Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Keohane, R. O. and Nye, J. S. (1971). Introduction. In R.O. Keohane and J.S. Nye. (Eds.), Transnational Relations and World Politics (pp. xii- xvi). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Keohane, R. O. & Nye, J. S. (1979). Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition. New York: Addison-Wesley.
Kitamura, Y. (2008). The political dimensions of international cooperation in education: mechanisms of global governance to promote education for all. In D. P. Baker & A. W. Wiseman (Eds.), Education for All: Global Promises, National Challenges (pp. 31-72). Oxford, UK: Elsevier JAI.
Krasner, S. D. (1995). Power politics, institutions, and transnational relations. In T. Risse-Kappen (Ed.), Bringing Transnational Relations Back In. Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures and International Institutions (pp.257-79). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lang, S. (2013). NGOs, Civil Society, and the Public Sphere. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Longford, M. (1996). NGOs and the rights of the child. In P. Willetts. (Ed.), The Conscience of the World': the Influence of Non-governmental Organizations in the UN system (pp.214-240). Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
Martens, K. (2005) NGOs and the United Nations: institutionalization, professionalization, and adaptation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mathews, J. T. (1997). Power shift. Foreign Affairs, 72 (1), 50-66.
Miller-Grandvaux, Y., M. Welmond and J. Wolf (2002). Evolving Partnerships: The Role of NGOs in Basic Education in Africa. Washington, DC: USAID.
Mingst, K.A., Karns , M.P., & Lyon, A.J. (2017). The United Nations in the 21st Century. Boulder: Westview Press.
Mitrany, D. (1943). A Working Peace System. An Argument for the Functional Development of International Organizations. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Mundy & Murphy. (2001). International advocacy, global civil society? emerging evidence from the field of education. Comparative Education Review, 45 (1), 85-126.
Mundy, K. (2006). Education for all and the new development compact. International Review of Education, 52, 23-48.
Mundy, K. (2007). Global governance, educational change. Comparative Education, 43 (3), 339-357
Mundy, K. (2010). “Education for all” and the global governors. In D. Deborah, M. Finnemore, & S. K. Sell (Eds.), Who Governs the Globe? (pp.333-355) New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mundy, K. (2012). The global campaign for education and the realization of “education for all.” In A. Verger & M. Novelli (Eds.), Campaigning For ‘Education For All’: Histories, Strategies and Outcomes of Transnational Social Movements in Education. (pp.23-36) Rotterdam.: Sense Publisher.
Mundy, K., & Manion, C. (2015). The education for all initiative: history and prospects post-2015. In T. McCowan & E. Unterhalter (Eds.), Education and International Development: Practice, Policy and Research (pp.49-68). London: Bloomsbury
Mingst, K.A., Karns , M.P., & Lyon, A.J. (2017). The United Nations in the 21st Century. Colorado: Westview Press.
Menashy, F. (2016). Understanding the roles of non-state actors in global governance: evidence from the global partnership for education. Journal of Education Policy, 31(1), 98-118.
Menashy, F. (2018). Multi-stakeholder aid to education: power in the context of partnership. Globalization, Societies and Education, 16(1), 13-26.
National Council for Law. (2010). The Constitution of Kenya 2010. Retrieved from:
Nungu, M. (2014). Reclaiming the education for all agenda in Africa. In E, Shizha, & A. A. Abdi, A.A (Eds.), Indigenous Discourses on Knowledge and Development in Africa (pp.94-107). New York: Routledge.
Mundy, K. (2007). Education for all: paradoxes and prospects of a global promise. In D. P. Baker & A. W. Wiseman (Eds.), Education for All: Global Promises, National Challenges. (pp. 1-30) Oxford, UK: Elsevier JAI.
Obasi, E. (1997). Structural adjustment and gender access to education in Nigeria. Gender and Education, 9 (2), 161–177.
Omwami, E. M. & Omwami, R.K. (2010). Public investment and the goal of providing universal access to primary education by 2015 in Kenya. International Journal of Educational Development, 30, 243–253.
Ogolo, E.O. (2010). Free Education in Kenya's Public Primary Schools: Addressing the Challenges. Addis Ababa: Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA).
Orodho, O.A., Waweru, P.N., Ndichu, M. & Nthinguri, R. (2013) Basic education in Kenya: focus on strategies applied to cope with school-based challenges inhibiting effective implementation of curriculum. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(11), 1-10.
Price, R. & Christian, R.S. (1998). Dangerous liaisons? critical international theory and constructivism. European Journal of International Relations, 4, 259-94.
Republic of Kenya. (2014). National Education Sector Plan. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.
Rosenau, J. N. (1990). Turbulence in World Politic: Theory of Change and Continuity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ruggie, J. G. (2004). Reconstructing the global public domain: issues, actors, and practices. European Journal of International Relations, 10 (4), 499-531.
Reinalda, B. (2015). The Co-evolution of Non-governmental and Intergovernmental Organizations in Historical Perspective. In W.E. DeMars and D. Dijkzeul (Eds.), The NGO Challenge for International Relations Theory (pp.107-128). New York: Routledge.
Reinicke,W. H. & Deng, F. (2000). Critical Choices. The United Nations, Network, and the Future of Global Governance. Ottawa: International Development Research Center.
Reinicke, W. H. & Witte, J. M. (2000). Interdependence, globalization, and sovereignty: the role of non-binding international legal accords. In D. Shelton (Ed.). Commitment and Compliance. The Role of Non-Binding Norms in the International System (pp.75-99). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Resnik, J. (2006). International organizations, the “education–economic growth” black box, and the development of world education culture. Comparative Education Review, 50 (2), 173-195.
Risse, T., Ropp S. C., & Sikkink K. (1999). The socialization of international human rights norms into domestic practices: introduction. In T. Risse, S. C. Ropp and K. Sikkink (Eds.), The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change (pp. 1-38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Risse, T. (1995). Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures and International Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Risse, T. (2002). Transnational Actors and World Politics. In W. Carlsnaes, T. Risse and B.Simmons (Eds.). Handbook of International Relations (pp. 255- 74). London: Sage.
Robertson, S., Mundy K., Verger, A. and Menashy F. (2012). Public Private Partnerships in Education: New Actors and Modes of Governance in a Globalizing World. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Rose, P. (2003). The Education Fast Track Initiative. Report Rrepared for ActionAid on behalf of the Global Campaign for Education. London: ActionAid.
Rose, P., Steer, L., Smith, K.., & Zubairi, A. (2013). Financing for Global Education: Opportunities for Multilateral Action. Washington, DC: Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institution.
Salamon, L. M. (1994). The rise of the nonprofit sector. Foreign Affairs, 73(3), 109-122.
Salamon, L. M. & Anheier H.K. (1994). The Emerging Sector: An Overview. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Institute for Policy Studies.
Savedoff, W. D. (2012). Global Government, Mixed Coalitions and the Future of International Cooperation. Washington DC: Center for Global Department.
Schäferhoff, M., Sabine C., & Christopher K. (2009). Transnational Public‐Private Partnerships in International Relations: Making Sense of Concepts, Research Frameworks, and Results. International Studies Review, 11, 451-474.
Schmitz, H. P. (2004). Being (Almost) like a state: challenges and opportunities of transnational non-governmental activism. In M. G. Hermann & B. Sundelius (Eds.), Comparative Foreign Policy Analysis: Theories and Methods. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Simmons, P. J. (1998). Learning to live with NGOs. Foreign Policy, 112, 82-96.
Smith, J. (1997). Characteristics of the modern transnational social movement sector. In J. Smith, C. Chatfield & R. Pagnucco (Eds.), Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics: Solidarity beyond the State (pp.42-58). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Publication.
Smith, J & Johnston, H. (2002). Globalization and Resistance: Transnational Dimensions of Social Movements. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
Stiglitz, J. E. (2002). Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Strange, S. (1996). The Retreat of the State: The diffusion of Power in the World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stroup, S. S., & Amanda M. (2012). There’s no place like home: explaining international NGO advocacy. The Review of International Organizations, 7, 425-448.
Take, I. (1999). NGOs as strategic actor in international politics. World Society Research Group, Working Paper No.10. Darmstadt: Technical University Darmstadt.
Therien, J. P. (2004). The politics of international development: towards a new grand compromise? Economic Policy and Law: Journal of Trade and Environmental Studies Special Issue. Retrieved from: (accessed 3 May 2018)
Tarrow, S. (1998). Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tomlinson, K. & Macpherson, I. (2007). Driving the Bus: The Journey of National Education Coalitions. London: Commonwealth Education Fund.
Torres, R. M. (2000). One Decade of Education for All: the Challenge Ahead. Buenos Aires: International Institute of Educational Planning.
UNESCO (1946). Constitution. Retrieved from:
UNESCO. (1992). In: Records of the General Conference 26th Session: Paris, vol. 1. Resolutions. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from:
UNESCO. (2000a). The Dakar Framework for Action, Education for All: Meeting our Collective Commitments. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from:
UNESCO. (2000b). World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26-28 April 2000: final report; 2000. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from:
UNESCO. (2002a). Dakar Framework for Action for Action - Education for All: Meeting our Collective Commitments. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from:
UNESCO. (2002b). EFA Global Monitoring Report: Is the World on Track? Paris: UNESCO.
UNESCO. (2002c). Education for All: An International Strategy to Put the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All into Operation. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from:
UNESCO. (2009). EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved form:
UNESCO. (2012). EFA Global Monitoring Report 2012. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved form:
UNESCO. (2014). EFA Global Monitoring Report 2014. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved form:
UNESCO. (2015). Education for All 2000–2015: Achievements and Challenges. Paris: UNESCO. Paris. Retrieved from:
UNESCO. (2016). Evaluation of the Education for All (EFA): Global and Regional Coordination Mechanisms. Paris: UNESCO.
Unterhalter, E. (2013). Education Targets, Indicators and a Post-2015 Development Agenda: Education for All, the MDGs, and Human Development. Working Paper Series, FXB Center for Health and Human Rights. Massachusetts: Harvard School of Public Health.
Unterhalter, E. (2015). Education and international development: a history. In T. McCowan & E. Unterhalter (Eds.), Education and International Development: An Introduction. (pp.13-29). London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Uwezo. (2016). Are Our Children Learning (2016)? Uwezo Kenya Sixth Learning Assessment Report. Nairobi: UWEZO.
Veerman, P. E. (1992). The Rights of the Child and the Changing Image of Childhood. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Wendt, A. (1992 ). Anarchy is what states make of it: the social construction of power politics. International Organization, 46, 391-425.
Wapner, P. (2007). The state or else! statism's resilience in NGO studies, International Studies Review, 9, 85–89
Warkentin, C. (2001). Reshaping World Politics: NGOs, the Internet, and Global Civil Society. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
Walker, M. (2007). Globalization 3.0. The Wilson Quarterly, 31(4), 16-24.
Willets, P. (1996). The Conscience of the World: The Influence of Non-Governmental Organizations in the UN System. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Willets, P. (2006). The cardoso report on the UN and civil society: functionalism, global corporatism, or global democracy? Global Governance, 12(3), 305-324.
Witte, J. M. & Reinicke, W. H. (2005). Business Unusual: Facilitating United Nations Reforms through Partnerships. New York: United Nations.
Winthrop & Steer. (2014). Is the Global Partnership Ready for Take Off? Opinion, June 24. Retrieved form:
World Bank. (2005). Fast Track Initiative: Building a Global Compact for Education. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Retrieved from:
Description: 碩士
Source URI:
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[外交學系] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File SizeFormat
301201.pdf1853KbAdobe PDF140View/Open

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing