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A Preliminary Study of Ethical Realism
|Keywords:||人性 ; 謹慎; 負責任權力 ;道德領導力 ; 務實外交 |
human nature; prudence ; responsible power; moral leadership; pragmatic foreign policy
|Issue Date:||2019-03-21 16:49:21 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||古典現實主義主張國家以追求權力與利益為主要目的的行為主要源自於人性。然而值得注意的是，國際政治學者摩根索（Hans J. Morgenthau）強調，人類並不僅是熱衷於你爭我鬥的政治性動物，也是具有道德約束力與心靈層面的生物，這也是人類與動物不同的地方。摩根索對政治行為的道德意義的著墨，使他有別於其他的現實主義者，成為道德現實主義的思想先驅之一。同被列為道德現實主義思想先驅的，還有尼布爾（Reinhold Niebuhr）和凱南（George Kennan）。道德現實主義者承認人性中自私自利與權力掌控欲望的一面，這樣的人性黑暗面將無可避免地導致不完美的世界。然而即使對人性抱持悲觀的態度，道德現實主義者仍相信人類與生俱來的道德感驅使著他創造美好的世界。若想要在這不完美的世界遵守道德規範行事，特別是對政治工作者而言，人們必須正視權力的角色而選擇相對之下較不邪惡的方式行事。如此一來，道德現實主義強調權力擁有者須以負責任的態度來行使他的權力，並以深思熟慮、謹慎評估後果的態度來行事。同時，道德現實主義強調做決策時，須考慮他國的意見與利益，而非一昧只考慮到自我的利益。負責任、謹慎、考量他人的利益的美德，構成道德現實主義的理論基礎與主張，也成為道德現實主義強調國家在對外政策的主要指導原則。|
For classical realists, the desire for power and the pursuit of self-interests is derived from human nature. However, it is worth noting that Hans J. Morgenthau claimed that man is a political animal by nature but he is also a moral being, which distinguish human beings from animals. Morgenthau, who emphasized the importance of morality, together with Reinhold Niebuhr and George Kennan, are identified as the intellectual fathers of ethical realism. The modern ethical realists recognize that the controlling nature of selfishness and will-to-power is inescapable and therefore the darkness of human nature ultimately leads to an imperfect human world. Despite their pessimistic view of human nature, ethical realists also stress that man is a creature with a moral purpose and tries to create a better world for all human beings. If one wants to act ethically, particularly for professional politicians in the political sphere, one has to recognize the role of power and make a choice of the lesser evil in every concrete human situation. Thus, ethical realism asserts that those with powers should have responsibilities and have to be aware of responsibilities for the consequences of their conduct; that is to say, they should make a prudent evaluation of the consequences to which they are likely to lead. Moreover, ethical realists stress the spirit of a decent respect for the opinions and interests of other states. Consequently, the virtues of responsibility, prudence, and a decent respect for the views and interests of others constitute the philosophical root of ethical realism, and become guidelines for shaping goals and deciding on actions in foreign policy decision-making.
|Relation:||國際關係學報, 35, pp.133-162|
|Appears in Collections:||[Journal of international relations] Journal Articles|
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