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Title: 先秦漢初雜家文獻中的「孔子形象」
The Images of Confucius Presented in Documents of Zajia during Pre-Qin and Early Han Period
Authors: 李隆獻
Lee, Long-shien
Contributors: 政大中文報
Keywords: 孔子形象;雜家;呂氏春秋;淮南子
images of Confucius;Zajia (the eclectics school);Lüshi Chunqiu (Spring and Autumn of Master Lü);Huainanzi (Masters from Huainan)
Date: 2018-06
Issue Date: 2019-03-26 09:08:40 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文以先秦、漢初最為卓然特立的「雜家」《呂氏春秋》、《淮南子》二書為考察對象,探論其學術傾向、關注議題及其呈顯的「孔子形象」。一、雜家之學以兼採各家之長為方法,故其引用對象遍及各家,難以藉由其文獻來源證實其學術思想傾向,但考察其引用文獻之偏好與用途,可知《呂氏春秋》特意避開《莊子》創發的獨特孔子形象,且皆援引孔子事蹟為其論點之依據,可見其接受的孔子形象較符合傳統認知;《淮南子》則多因襲道家文獻,接受《莊子》變創的孔子敘事。二、《呂氏春秋》關注「君臣遇合」議題,重視孔子以布衣干君求用的故實,又藉孔子之口闡發不得志者的自處之道;《淮南子》則倡導兼取並用之美,故或以孔子雖為聖人仍有所不能為喻,說明各家學說皆有不足,或盛讚孔子兼備弟子之材,標榜融匯兼取的雜家學說。三、二書皆以孔子的「老師」身分闡述「學」的觀點:《呂氏春秋》重視「學」的效用,故孔門弟子皆顯榮聞達;《淮南子》則以學為殘生害性,故著重描寫孔門弟子之夭病死傷。四、二書之「孔子曰」/「仲尼曰」可區分為三類:一是作為「評論者」;二是藉孔子之言,闡述事理,唯此事理並不屬於儒家學說;三則是以孔子之言為《老子》注腳,即在「孔子曰」論述之後,添加《老子》原文,使「孔子曰」成為老子哲理的闡發者。《呂氏春秋》採用了前兩類,《淮南子》則三類兼具。無論其用途為何,皆反映先秦漢初以孔子為儀表的思想趨勢。
This paper aims to explore images of Confucius, the academic trends and issues presented in two books, Lüshi Chunqiu (Spring and Autumn of Master Lü) and Huainanzi (Masters from Huainan). Even though the method of zajia is to assimilate ideas from other schools, and it is difficult to pin down any clear textual attitude regarding its presentation of Confucius, tendencies or preferences still can be found from the documents cited. For example, Lüshi Chunqiu purposely avoids the particular image of Confucius presented in Zhuangzi, but cites some of Confucius' behaviors, from which we can see Lüshi Chunqiu seeks to fit in with the more conventional conception. On the other hand, Huainanzi, regarded as a Daoist document, adapts presentation of Confucius in Zhuangzi, the refashioned image of Confucius is thus endowed with historical significance. Secondly, Lüshi Chunqiu is concerned with the relationships between the King and his counselors, so it puts more emphasis on presenting how Confucius seeks to offer political solutions for the King and how a noble person could behaves himself even in difficult situations. On the contrary, Huainanzi, with the aim to celebrate the eclectic aesthetics of zajia which avoids limitation of a single perspective, conveys that even Confucius as a saint is unable to teach everything, but it is his various abilities (instead of one) that distinguishes him from other people including his disciples. The two books also explore the issue of learning and Confucius as a teacher from different perspectives. Lüshi Chunqiu emphasizes the advantage of learning by showing the cases of his renowned disciples, while Huainanzi points out the disadvantages of learning by showing the cases of his disciples' death and illness. Finally, there are different usages of "Confucius" or "Zhongni" in these two books, which could be divided into three categories: 1) as a commentator in line with his conventional image; 2) when having teachings other than Confucianism put into his mouth; 3) when celebrating ideas of Laozi, by presenting Confucius' words as supporting texts of Laozi. Lüshi Chunqiu adopts the first two usages, while Huainanzi adopts all of them. The presented images of Confucius in both of the two books reflect tendency to see Confucius as a great model during Pre-Qin and Early Han Period.
Relation: 政大中文報, 29, pp.127-173
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Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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