政大學術集成


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Title: 兩岸對「軍隊國家化」的認知與態度
Ideas and Attitudes on ";Military Nationalization";in China and Taiwan
Authors: 洪陸訓
Hung, Lu-Hsun
Contributors: 東亞研究
Keywords: 軍隊國家化;文人領軍;文武關係;黨國體制;政治中立;軍事專業主義
Military Nationalization;Civilian Control;Civil-Military Relations;Party-State System;Political Neutrality;Military Professionalism
Date: 2004-07
Issue Date: 2019-03-28 10:18:54 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文目的在於探討當前台海兩岸人民對於「軍隊國家化」的不同認知與所持態度,並加以評析。早期共產黨與民進黨在野時為爭取對軍隊的主導權,曾策略性地運用此一概念,指責統治者或國民黨獨佔軍權而要求軍隊應國家化。但是執政後,所持態度卻截然不同。中共政治體制本質上是一種列寧式黨國體制,強調黨至高無上的霸權統治。這種統治形態下的文武關係是一種「以黨領軍」的「黨軍」關係模式。黨地位與權力超越國家、政府、軍隊與人民之上,因此,主張軍隊是共黨的軍隊而堅決反對「軍隊國家化」、「軍隊非政治化」和「軍隊非黨化」。台灣政權已由威權體制轉型為民主開放模式,強調「人民主權」、「文人至上」,主張「文人領軍」的文武關係。因此認為軍隊是國家與全民的軍隊,軍人應保持政治「中立」。基本上,台灣已實現了此一基本理念。中共強調黨對軍隊的絕對領導,有其傳統與現實的考量,但是在面臨解放軍不斷地現代化與專業化發展趨勢下要持續排斥軍隊國家化的挑戰,恐怕相當困難
This essay attempts to investigate and comment on the perceptions and attitudes of people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait regarding the nationalization of the military. In Taiwan, in the effort to gain control over the military, the oppositions Chinese Communist and Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) made strategic use of this concept, criticizing the rules or the Kuomintang of monopolizing control over the military and calling for nationalization of the military. However, it has sung a totally different tune since coming into power.The Chinese Communist political structure is essentially a Leninist party-state system that emphasizes supreme control of the party over the mechanisms of the state. Under such an arrangement, civil-military relations follow a model of party leadership over the military, where the party exercises supremacy over the state, government, military, and the people. Consequently, the system holds that the military belongs to the party and is thus resolutely opposed to military nationalization, Military de-politicization, and non-party affiliation of the military. Having made the transition from authoritarian rule to an open democratic model, Taiwan’s political system stresses civil sovereignty, civil supremacy, and civilian control over the military. Consequently, it holds that the military belongs to the nation and its people, and that military personnel should maintain political neutrality. Taiwan has essentially put this concept into practice. With the ongoing modernization and professionalization of the People’s Liberation Army, mainland China’s emphasis on absolute party leadership over the military, while based on conventional and practical considerations, is bound to face increasing pressure to confront the challenges of military nationalization.
Relation: 東亞研究, 35(2), pp.33-70
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[East Asia Studies] Periodical Articles

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