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Title: 中共教育路線變遷與教育政策發展
Education and Educational Policy in Mainland China
Authors: 劉勝驥
Liu, Sheng-Chi
Contributors: 問題與研究
Keywords: 中國大陸;教育政策
Mainland China;educational development;educational policy
Date: 2002-05
Issue Date: 2019-04-18 14:13:14 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 毛澤東對於「實踐」非常重視,【實踐論】(與西方的實用主義有差異)成為他的教育哲學。早期毛澤東就提倡從幹中學習。①這種偏重感性知識,強調經驗主義的講話,與毛澤東以後反對多讀書,反對「本本主義」,輕視理性知識的立場相一致。中共建國以後,毛澤東一直想把大陸教育辦成「延安式抗日大學」,即「教育必須為無產階級政治服務,必須同生產勞動相結合。」但實際推行教育政策的劉少奇和鄧小平採行蘇聯式教育路線,教育目標為「培養又紅又專」的建設人才。毛澤東教育路線延至文化大革命方才實現,果然造成教育素質的大倒退。鄧小收拾文革殘局,希望把中國大陸建設成為具有中國特色的社會主義國家,即從大陸現實國情出發,執行以經濟建設為中心,堅持改革開放、堅持四項基本原則,即「一個中心,兩基本點」的基本路線。圍繞著這個概念和結論,形成關於社會主義社會的根本任務是發展生產力,集中力量實現現代化。②這個以經濟建設為中心的枓本方針,在鄧小平的領導下確立為中共十一屆三中全會的政策路線,也開啟了以開放改革為標榜的鄧小平時代。而教育則服務於經濟發展,形成「科教興國」的社會發展戰略。江澤民掌權後表態堅定支持鄧小平改革開放路線,中共在十二大和十三大都把教育列為戰略重點決策,十四大上江澤民指出「把教育擺在優先發展的戰略地位」,十五大和第九屆人大都表示沿著鄧小平道路前進,整體而言是強調教育的,但投入教育經費的比重和重視程度仍遜於鄧小平。
Chairman Mao Tse-tung placed great priority on practicing what he preached; “practical theory” (different from the Western philosophy of pragmatism) became his educational philosophy. In the early days, Mao had already advocated learning by doing. This approach emphasizes perceptual knowledge and stresses the experiential ideology in talking; it is cosisten with Mao’s later objections to reading knowledge. After the establishment of the PRC, Mao wanted to turn education in Mainland China into the “Yenan model of Anti-Japanese Uni-versity” , believing that “education should serve the politics of the masses and needs to combine with labor production.”However, Liu Shao Qi and Deng Xiaoping, who were in the forefront of promoting educational policy, chose to use the educational style of Soviet Russia; the educational goal was to “develop both professional and communist” people for national construction. Mao’s educational route came into fruition during the Cultural Revolution, which resulted in the educational quality taking a big step backwards. Deng Xiaoping was responsible for putting things right in the aftermath of the Cultural Revolution; he hoped to rebuild Mainland China into a country with a distinct Chinese socialist ideology. Taking into account the actual conditions of the country and with economic building as the core, he insisted in reform and openness, as well as the execution of four basic principles. He advocated the “one core, two basic points” route. Around this concept and conclusion, the tenet was that the basic mission of a socialist society is to develop productivity and to concentrate strength to achieve modernization was formed. Under Deng’s leadership, this basic direction, which is centered on economic building, became the policy direction of the 11th Party Congress in Mainland China. This also began the Deng Xiaoping era of change; education to serve economic development became the social development battle strategy of a “nation with flourishing technological education.”After succeeding Deng, Jiang Zemin expressed unconditional support for Deng Xiaoping’s route of change and openness. During the 12th and 13th Party Congresses, he categorized education as a major component of national strategy. During the 14th Party Congress, Jiang pointed out “the strategic position of placing education as a top priority for development;” during the 15th Party Congress and the 9th People’s Congress, Jiang expressed his plans to follow the road taken by Deng Xiaoping. Overall, there was a major emphasis on education; however, budget allocation for education as well as the level of priority given was smaller than those during Deng’s time.
Relation: 問題與研究, 41(3), 143-173
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[問題與研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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