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Education and Educational Policy in Mainland China
Mainland China;educational development;educational policy
|Issue Date:||2019-04-18 14:13:14 (UTC+8)|
Chairman Mao Tse-tung placed great priority on practicing what he preached; “practical theory” (different from the Western philosophy of pragmatism) became his educational philosophy. In the early days, Mao had already advocated learning by doing. This approach emphasizes perceptual knowledge and stresses the experiential ideology in talking; it is cosisten with Mao’s later objections to reading knowledge. After the establishment of the PRC, Mao wanted to turn education in Mainland China into the “Yenan model of Anti-Japanese Uni-versity” , believing that “education should serve the politics of the masses and needs to combine with labor production.”However, Liu Shao Qi and Deng Xiaoping, who were in the forefront of promoting educational policy, chose to use the educational style of Soviet Russia; the educational goal was to “develop both professional and communist” people for national construction. Mao’s educational route came into fruition during the Cultural Revolution, which resulted in the educational quality taking a big step backwards. Deng Xiaoping was responsible for putting things right in the aftermath of the Cultural Revolution; he hoped to rebuild Mainland China into a country with a distinct Chinese socialist ideology. Taking into account the actual conditions of the country and with economic building as the core, he insisted in reform and openness, as well as the execution of four basic principles. He advocated the “one core, two basic points” route. Around this concept and conclusion, the tenet was that the basic mission of a socialist society is to develop productivity and to concentrate strength to achieve modernization was formed. Under Deng’s leadership, this basic direction, which is centered on economic building, became the policy direction of the 11th Party Congress in Mainland China. This also began the Deng Xiaoping era of change; education to serve economic development became the social development battle strategy of a “nation with flourishing technological education.”After succeeding Deng, Jiang Zemin expressed unconditional support for Deng Xiaoping’s route of change and openness. During the 12th and 13th Party Congresses, he categorized education as a major component of national strategy. During the 14th Party Congress, Jiang pointed out “the strategic position of placing education as a top priority for development;” during the 15th Party Congress and the 9th People’s Congress, Jiang expressed his plans to follow the road taken by Deng Xiaoping. Overall, there was a major emphasis on education; however, budget allocation for education as well as the level of priority given was smaller than those during Deng’s time.
|Relation:||問題與研究, 41(3), 143-173|
|Appears in Collections:||[Issues & Studies] Articles|
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