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Title: 美國白人慈善基金會處理種族議題的雙面刃-以「羅森沃德基金會」(Julius Rosenwald Fund)為例
Harm or Help?: The Double-Edged-Sword Racial Strategies of Julius Rosenwald Fund
Authors: 黃文齡
Huang, Wen-Ling
Contributors: 國立政治大學歷史學報
Keywords: 羅森沃德基金會;朱利葉斯.羅森沃德;愛德溫.安布里;種族關係
Julius Rosenwald Fund;Julius Rosenwald;Edwin R. Embree;racial relations
Date: 2018-11
Issue Date: 2019-07-18 11:12:40 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 「羅森沃德基金會」是白人慈善基金會中最早投入並持續關注種族議題者,歷屆兩位董事會主席朱利葉斯.羅森沃德(Julius Rosenwald)和愛德溫.安布里(Edwin R. Embree)對於黑人議題是友善的,立場與作法上卻有差異。在尋求社會安定為前提的共同原則下,羅氏依循種族隔離的傳統思維模式,安布里的策略則因黑人社會氛圍的轉變而有所修正,由種族隔離轉而支持種族融合,他透過培育黑人人才、與黑人社會合作、擴大關懷棕色族裔、建立暢通的資訊管道等方式,充分掌握黑人議題的趨勢與符合黑人社會的需求。而「羅森沃德基金會」透過慈善補助款改善黑人社會的善舉,為黑人社會創造提升的機會,卻也形成另一種形式的箝制。
American philanthropic foundations grew out of the prosperity of Industrial Revolution at the end of 19th century. The Julius Rosenwald Fund was the first such fund that demonstrated an ongoing concern for the welfare of African Americans living in the South. Julius Rosenwald and Edwin R. Embree, the chairmen of the Board of directors, showed a distinctive determination to address racial issues. To that end, Rosenwald built over 5,000 Rosenwald schools for African Americans across the South, while Embree put emphasis on encouraging teacher training, higher education, cooperation with the talented American Africans experts, and the extension of approaches to racial issues from the Black Americans to Brown Americans. Embree also made deft use of the media to address the needs of the black community and promote his ideas of racial integrity. In addition to analyzing changes in the ways the Fund was managed and disbursed over time, this article considers how the Fund, while doing good, at the same time shackled the progressive energies present in the black community.
Relation: 國立政治大學歷史學報, 50, 45-89
Data Type: article
DOI 連結: 10.30383/TJH.201811_(50).0002
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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