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Title: 一戰期間英國對伊朗北方局勢的觀察與對應(1914-1917)
British Policies toward Northern Iran during World War I (1914-1917)
Authors: 陳立樵
Chen, Li-Chiao
Contributors: 國立政治大學歷史學報
Keywords: 第一次世界大戰;葛雷;薩左諾夫;維蘇克道拉;《1907年英俄協定》
World War I;Edward Grey;Serge Sazonov;Vusuq al-Dowleh;Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907
Date: 2019-05
Issue Date: 2019-07-18 11:19:55 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文討論第一次世界大戰期間,英國如何對應伊朗北方局勢的變化。自19世紀以來,英國與俄國在中亞與西亞爭奪勢力範圍。進入20世紀,兩強以《1907年英俄協定》明文確立伊朗北部是俄國的勢力範圍、東南部屬於英國,雙方互不干涉。不過,英俄仍然時常質疑對方違反協定,意圖插足另一方的勢力範圍。1914年7月一戰爆發之後,伊朗雖宣示中立,但仍然受到戰事波及。鄂圖曼帝國加入德國陣營,與俄國在高加索地區、與英國在美索不達米亞交戰,導致伊朗西部邊境遭到戰事波及。關於俄國在伊朗西北部的軍事行動,英國外交部雖警戒俄國會趁機拓展其勢力範圍,但為求戰爭勝利仍同意俄國增派軍隊進駐伊朗。此外,德國也有意要拉攏伊朗,使得英俄質疑伊朗中央政府的立場並不中立,可能會向德國靠攏。伊朗政府儘管一再表示從未偏離其中立立場,卻還是受到強權政治角力的影響。到了1917年,俄國在蘇維埃革命之後宣布退出戰場,也決定撤出駐紮在伊朗的軍隊、放棄原本在伊朗的特權,使得英國頓時之間在伊朗北部沒有外來壓力,成為往後毫無後顧之憂介入伊朗北部事務的契機。
This article discusses the British policies with reagrd to northern Iran during the First World War. Britain and Russia had been rivals in Central Asia and Western Asia since the nineteenth century. After the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, the two powers partitioned Iran into three zones: a Russian zone in the north, a British zone in the south-east, and a neutral zone in the centre. In addition, the two powers had no right to intervene in each other's sphere of influence. Nevertheless, there was no trust between the two powers. At the outbreak of World War I, military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and Russia occurred in the western area of Iran even though Iran declared neutrality. The British Foreign Ministry in London and the Legation in Tehran, who were suspicious of the Russian military expansion in northern Iran, on the one hand, made efforts to reach a common understanding with the Russians in order to end the war soon. On the other hand, they doubted that Iran intended to be on the German side. During this period, Iran, a neutral country, remained under pressures from the belligerent powers. The establishment of the Soviet government in the end of 1917, which led to the withdrawal of the Russian army, released northern Iran from Russian pressure. The new situation made Britain a hegemony in Iran, and soon expanded its influence into northern Iran, the former Russian sphere, by 1907 Convention.
Relation: 國立政治大學歷史學報, 51, 83-119
Data Type: article
DOI 連結: 10.30383/TJH.201905_(51).0003
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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