政大學術集成


Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/126497


Title: 重塑道統 ─《四書大全》中的新安學脈
"Succession to the Way (Dao Tong)": The Xin'an School in the Encyclopedia of the Four Books (Si Shu Da Quan)
Authors: 陳逢源
Chen, Feng-yuan
Contributors: 中文系
Keywords: 朱熹;倪士毅;四書;新安學;四書大全
 Zhu Xi ; Ni Shi Yi ; Four Books ; Xin'an school ; Encyclopedia of the Four Books (Si Shu Da Quan)
Date: 2018-12
Issue Date: 2019-09-27 16:44:52 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 明成祖(1360-1424)於永樂 12 年(1414)十一月下詔,命翰林學士胡廣 (1369-1418)等編纂《四書大全》,內容承襲倪士毅《四書輯釋》為多,至於倪士 毅《四書輯釋》則是匯整陳櫟《四書發明》與胡炳文《四書通》而成,所代表正是 新安一系四書詮釋成果。考《四書大全》「引用先儒姓氏」,於程、朱之外,屬於新 安人氏有王炎、胡次焱、程若庸、吳浩、陳櫟、汪炎昶、朱伸(疑為朱申)、胡炳文、 張存中、倪士毅等人。剔除歸於饒魯一系的程若庸、吳浩之外,其餘共計八人,徵 引 1740 條,佔 29.52%,為《四書大全》最主要的徵引材料。朱熹之後,學術脈絡 旁出,各有發揮,不同地域有不同的發展,既具精彩,也更增分歧,新安學人於宋 元之際,從各立宗旨,各自引伸的進路,轉為持守深化,以朱熹學術作為凝聚鄉里 情感的文化符碼,成為明儒建構經典詮釋的基礎。分析其中,標舉朱熹學術為宗, 具有化解分歧的意義;發凡起例,可以了解朱熹注解原則;回歸於經注之間,得見 朱熹用字之不苟;進而將「道統」與四書義理縝密結合,深化程、朱於道統續傳之 地位,乃至於對饒魯雙峰學術的思考,以及定本的追尋等,充分展現新安學人的學 術成就,於此細節,揭之而出,得見宋元之際新安學人貢獻,也得以了解明儒四書 學發展的背景脈絡。
The Yongle Emperor (Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty, 1360-1424) commanded Hu Guang, a Hanlin academician, to compile the Encyclopedia of the Four Books (Si Shu Da Quan). Hu adopted Ni Shi Yi's approach in Collected Exegesis of the Four Books (Si Shu Ji Shi), the confluence of Chen Li's Discovery of the Four Books (Si Shu Fa Ming) and Hu Bing Wen's General Survey of the Four Books (Si Shu Tong). It reveals that Encyclopedia of the Four Books is the achievement of Xin'an scholars' interpretations. In fact, besides Cheng brothers (Cheng Yi and Cheng Hao) and Zhu Xi, the Xin'an scholars whose works were cited in Encyclopedia of the Four Books are as follows: Wang Yan, Hu Ci Yan, Cheng Ruo Yong, Wu Hao, Chen Li, Wang Yan Chang, Zhu Shen, Hu Bing Wen, Zhang Cun Zhong, and Ni Shi Yi. Expelling Cheng Ruo Yong and Wu Hao, who belonged to Rao'lu School, there are eight Xin'an scholars. And there are 1740 citations from them, accounting for 29.52 percent of the materials in Encyclopedia of the Four Books. It is worthy to know that many scholars formed academic clans of their own and illustrated Confucianism in different ways after Zhu Xi. Their works made Confucianism brilliant as well as diverse. After constructing their theory in the beginning, Xin'an scholars deepened their thoughts and used Zhu's doctrine to cohere their neighbors between Song and Yuan Dynasty. Then their work became the foundation of Ming scholars' research on the classics. Taking Zhu's notion as the core of their school eliminated the divergence between Xin'an School and other schools. Xin'an scholars followed Zhu's principle to produce instances and hence they not only understood Zhu's words clearly but also combined the Succession to the Way (Dao Tong) and the ordinance in the Four Books successfully. Moreover, they confirmed the connections between Cheng brothers and Zhu Xi's positions in the history of Confucianism. In order to publish a firm version, they also investigated the arguments of Rao'lu and Shuang fong Schools. The above manifested Xin'an scholars' academic achievements, which assisted the subsequent researchers, as well as the context of the development of the study of the Four Books in Ming Dynasty.
Relation: 成大中文學報, No.63, pp.39-78
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[Department of Chinese Literature] Periodical Articles

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