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Title: 戰國時代「明主」觀念探析-以「聖人」的對比為切入點
The Concepts of "Luminous Monarch" (明主) in the Warring States Period: Compare with the Idea of "Sage Ruler"(聖人)
Authors: 青山大介
Contributors: 東亞觀念史集刊
Keywords: 明主;聖人;《商君書》;《管子‧形勢解》;《韓非子》
Date: 2016-12
Issue Date: 2019-11-20 15:52:38 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 此文探析戰國時代「明主」觀念之特質及其與「聖人」觀念之關係。由於「明主」的原義淵源於月光通過窗戶照亮屋內的樣子,其涵義以「視覺」為主要象徵。因此,它係指能夠明察同一時空間裡的事物,辨明善惡的能力。戰國早期的文獻中「聖人」和「明主」都意指「聖」、「明」兼備的理想君主,而在《商君書》的論述中,將理想君主分成「聖人」(立法)和「明主」(緣法)兩部分。《管子》和《韓非子》的論述中則將此兩詞個別呈現為「明主=使役者=君主=上位」跟「聖人=被使役者=臣子=下位」的職責分擔關係,而在其格局中「明主」係國君,並且他有能力善用比自己優秀的「聖人」這樣的人材而稱霸。到了戰國晚期的思想中,君主已不需要他本人身為「聖人」而直接治國;他可以將治理國家的職責交於稱得上是「聖人」程度的臣下。如此,戰國時期國家一方面維持既存的身分秩序且能夠避免「禪讓」或「篡奪」所引起的社會混亂,一方面在政治的實務方面能夠活用「聖人」的能力且加強競爭力。
This article analyzes the characteristics of the concept of "sage ruler"(聖人)and "luminous monarch"(明主)with a close focus upon the concept of "wiseness"(聰明性). It also inquires into the process and development of their conceptual relationship during the Warring States period. My observation is as follows: Firstly, the concept of "sageness" has originated in the tradition of ancient image of shaman, symbolizing "ears with hearing ability" to perceive everything beyond any space-time limitation. The concept of "luminous monarch" originated in the term "vision" which symbolized a state of a room bright with moonlight through windows. With such a vision, the ruler was invested with the ability to distinguish between truth and falsehood accurately and instantly. Secondly, in the early Warring States period, "sage ruler" and "luminous monarch" were viewed as an image of ideal monarch with the capacity of the sageness(聖)and luminosity(明). Nevertheless, in the Book of Lord Shang, the concept of sageness was associated with the concept of creator, while that of a luminous monarch with followers. Thirdly, in the later Warring States period, Legalist thinkers proposed the relationship between "luminous monarch-employer-master" on the top versus "sageness-employee-vassal" below. Legalists have proposed an image of the monarch who were released from the duty to lead the nation by himself as a sage rule, accordingly imposing the duty for the statecraft to his minister "the number two". In this way, the ruler had an opportunity to obtain the model for safe and effective way to enhance his country, in which the sage minster would actually take charge of all the works for attaining that purpose.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊, 11, 61-96
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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