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Title: 西漢初期知識分子對「秦」的言論
The Intellectual's Discourses on the Qin Dynasty in the Early Former Han
Authors: 工藤卓司
Contributors: 東亞觀念史集刊
Keywords: ;西漢初期;知識分子;政治思想;禮學
Date: 2016-12
Issue Date: 2019-11-20 15:52:44 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 公元前二二一年,秦滅六國建立中國歷史上第一個集權帝國。然而,秦政權卻僅僅維持十五年便滅亡了。到了漢代,不少知識分子對秦朝興亡之故多所討論。他們在秦朝興亡史中觀察到何種道理?「秦」這一歷史經驗帶給他們何種思考?本文以陸賈、賈誼、賈山、韓嬰、鼂錯及張釋之的言論為主,整理了漢初知識分子對「秦」的論述,並探討這些論述與他們的思想以及社會背景之關係。本文結論主要指出以下三點:一、漢初知識分子雖同樣批評秦朝,但他們的切入點各有不同:陸賈偏重「仁義道德」的觀點;賈誼訴求「禮義」與政治制度改革的需要;賈山促使漢文帝反省自己行為與君臣的關係;韓嬰借秦事使諸侯王了解「民之人情」與「禮義」的重要;鼂錯與張釋之所批評的鋒芒則指向「吏」。以上論點,乃是基於他們一方面受所處時間與空間的約束,另一方面則受「秦」的歷史經驗所限制。二、漢初知識分子批判秦朝時,在文字上雖看似在「評判歷史」,但他們的重點尚多在「評判現實政治」;而他們以「秦」為「漢」鑑時則採取以下兩種視角:(一)以「秦」與「漢」對置;(二)以「秦」與「漢」重合。三、先進研究嘗指出《荀子》對漢代諸子思想頗有影響,然而,本文認為賈誼與韓嬰亦受到《管子》影響,此點在漢代禮學史上亦非常值得注意。
In B.C.221, the Qin Lord destroyed the other six Influential Lords of the Zhanguo period, and founded the first dominate empire in Chinse history; although the Qin dynasty fell into ruin only 15 years later. In the Han period, many intellectuals argued the reasons for the Qin dynasty to rise and fall in these short years. This article offers Lu Jia, Jia Yi, Jia Shan, Han Ying, Chao Cuo, and Zhan Shizhi as examples, sorts the discourses regarding the Qin dynasty in the early Former Han period, and discusses the relationship between these discourses, their thoughts and social backgrounds. In conclusion, this article points out three issues: 1. The intellectuals in the early Former Han period similarly criticized the Qin dynasty, although their points of view were not similar. 2. When the intellectuals in the early Former Han criticized the Qin dynasty, their discourse focused on "historical judgement;" however, most placed emphasis on "political judgement." Then, when they took the warnings of the Qin dynasty for the Han dynasty, they had two visual angles: (1) Contrasted Qin and Han; (2) Overlapped Qin and Han. 3. Most previous researches only emphasized Xun zi's effect on the intellectuals of the Former Han period; however, this paper thinks that Jia Yi and Han Ying were also influenced by Guan zi. In studies on Li of the Han period, we cannot minimize this point.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊, 11, 137-185
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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