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Title: 近代化願景與概念的形成-試論近代日本新「文明」概念的意義建構與內涵
The Formation of Modern Vision and Concepts: A Discussion on the Construction and Connotations of New "Civilization" in Modern Japan
Authors: 陳瑋芬
Contributors: 東亞觀念史集刊
Keywords: 文明;文化;明治日本;現代性;文與體
Date: 2016-12
Issue Date: 2019-11-20 15:52:51 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 「文明」是漢語古典文獻便已出現的語彙, 意指「『文』之『明』」,即文教昌明、發達,隱喻著對三代的嚮慕。來到十九世紀中葉以降,「文明」成為西文"civilization"的譯語,此後則複合了後者帶有進化論意義的意涵,意指一種臻於發達的,已經確立的社會秩序或生活方式,並與"savagery"(未開化),"barbarism"(野蠻)形成對比。「文明」與"civilization"之對譯關係的成立,恰好是西方帝國主義蓬勃發展的時期。列強常以"civilization"來描述自己所達到的物質水平,並將之擴為具備普遍性的衡量基準,來認識和檢視世界其他國家。明治維新之短短十數年間所達成的現代化樣態,一般以「文明開化」來描述之。這個現代化體驗的過程不僅迅速得令人稱奇,也很可能是世界史上絕無僅有的珍奇體驗-因為在推動此一文明開化的力量之中,除了源自於日本人自身,外國人的力量也佔了極重要的地位。換言之,此文明開化的推手至少包括了啟蒙知識分子、旅外使節及留學生、以及由政府或民間由國外所聘僱的大批技術專家及教育者(日語以「御雇外國人」稱之)。他們特別留心於西方"civilization"概念所含括的事項及實質內涵,並試圖譯介到日本。本文透過幕末明治期的漢字辭典及雙語辭典、福澤諭吉的著作,以及岩倉具視使節團的文字和圖像紀錄,來探討他們如何表述西方"civilization"所象徵的各種面向、歸納「文明」概念所應含括的事項,並從中描摹出日本近代化願景。
Wenming 文明is a term used in Chinese classics, meaning "brightness" (ming 明) of "culture" (wen 文), namely well-developed culture and education. It also connotes the yearning for the Three Dynasties. Not until the mid-nineteenth century did "wenming" become the Chinese translation of the western term "civilization." Since then, the meaning of "wenming" has included the connotation of evolutionism from the received etymology of "civilization," suggesting a well-structured social order and living style, which sharply contrasts with "savagery" and "barbarism." The full development of Western imperialism in Asia led to the formation of the corresponding translation between "wenming" and "civilization." Western great powers often used "civilization" as a description for the degree of their material life and thus regarded it as a universal criteria for evaluating other countries. The achievement of modernization established in the Meiji Restoration of Japan was called "Civilization and Enlightenment Movement" (wenming kaihua). The process of modernization went amazingly fast-possibly a unique experience in world history. Both Japanese and foreigners played important roles in promoting Japan's civilization. This group of people included Japanese intellectuals, overseas ambassadors and students, and the foreign technological specialists and educators hired by the government and non-government organizations in Japan (they were called oyatoi gaikokujin in Japanese). They not only paid particular attention to the connotations and content of "civilization" through translation but also tried to introduce them to Japan. By analyzing the bilingual and Chinese dictionaries in the late Tokugawa period and Meiji period, Fukuzawa Yukichi's works, and the text and images of the Iwakura Embassy, this article explores how "civilization" was symbolically presented in various aspects. Through the generalization of how the idea of "wenming" was circulated, this article portrays an alternative vision of Japan's modernization.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊, 11, 225-270
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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