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Title: al-Ghazzali的靈與心救贖︰一個靈思心理學的解析
On al-Ghazzali’s Salvation of Soul and Heart: An Analysis of Contemplative Psychology
Authors: 楊美芬
Contributors: 宗教博五
Keywords: 救贖 ; 蘇非主義; 外顯與內隱; 靈思心理學   
salvation; Sufism; exoteric and esoteric; contemplative psychology
Date: 2014-12
Issue Date: 2019-11-26 16:09:45 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文以十一、十二世紀伊斯蘭蘇非大師al-Ghazzali的靈與心同獲救贖的宗教經驗作為宗教心理學理論探討的典範,內容主要著眼於他個人以虔誠和謙卑體現信仰所經歷的重大轉變。al-Ghazzali本身擁有豐富的知識和深刻的思想,更重要的是,他順從內在的指引,履行蘇非之道,最終完成外顯與內隱的相互體證。在分析和詮釋的理論依據上,本文採用荷蘭宗教心理學家Han F. de Wit結合現代心理學素養與親身的靈修經驗,在二十世紀晚期發展出的一套理論,稱為「靈思心理學」(Contemplative Psychology)。在這套理論中,de Wit呈現宗教的冥思傳統與個人的心理洞見、思想信念之間的連結,經驗和思想可以相互為用。在他所提出的理論中,本文透過如下幾個觀點:皈依、關鍵時刻、斷裂、危機、懷疑、改變、與捨離,說明al-Ghazzali如何成就伊斯蘭密契傳統的最高典範,同時也突顯靈思心理學試圖闡釋人類靈與心互相超越,同獲救贖的論點。
al-Ghazzali, the outstanding Islamic thinker and great Sufi of the 11th-12th century, has been regarded as a perfect example of embodying inward transformation through religious action with piety and humility. Being an authority on theology and law of Islam, al-Ghazzali not only possessed profound knowledge and thought, but also practiced Sufi ethics. After experiencing a serious spiritual crisis, he gave up all his possessions and position to follow the Sufi path for salvation and survival. In this essay the theory of “contemplative psychology” by Han F. de Wit is adopted to analyze and interpret al-Ghazzali’s spiritual transformation. In his theory, de Wit presents the connection between contemplative traditions of religions and belief of the individual. Among those concepts stated by de Wit in his theory, the notions of conversion, moments, break, crisis, doubt, change, and renunciation are exploited to the case of al-Ghazzali’s spiritual transformation from an ordinary theologian to a Sufi.
Relation: 新世紀宗教研究, Vol.13, No.2, pp.63-95
Data Type: article
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