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Title: 坤道應運:一貫道的女性觀
The Rise of Female's Era (kundao yingyun 坤道應運): Notions of Female Gender in Yiguan Dao 一貫道
Authors: 沈曄瀅
Shen, Yeh-ying
Contributors: 華人宗教研究
Keywords: 一貫道;女性觀;坤道應運;孫慧明
Yiguan Dao;notions of female gender;kundao yingyun;Sun Huiming
Date: 2016-06
Issue Date: 2019-11-29 09:21:27 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 一貫道女性觀可以「兩性先天平等」與「女身後天限制」來劃分。其教義中的「理天」是萬物的淵源本體,不分陰陽;一貫道的人性論肯定人與天同源,是以萬物的源頭並不分性別。又道中慣以女性形象的「老□娘」來稱其所禮拜的最高主宰,傳遞了「兩性先天平等」的模糊意識。另外,道內也承認女身因生理限制而無法在家庭與社會中被賦予重責,就此衍生一種後天不平等的觀念。第十八代祖師之一的孫慧明以女性身份受領祖位後,道場內對女性產生了新的觀點:「坤道應運」。「坤道應運」指的是女性地位提升,女子可以在社會或道場中擔任重要的角色。孫慧明擔當祖師一事往往被視為坤道應運的起點與印證,孫氏作為一個象徵,代表了女性握有修行主權、更寬廣的修行機會,也用此解釋現代婦女可以在教內升上更高的職級。本文還討論了一貫道中終生不婚,全身心事奉道場的清修女性,透過投入宗教活動尋求自我實現,並以此反抗社會上不婚女性不能列入祠堂的舊俗。藉奉獻於道場,希冀獲得高於一般世俗家族祭儀的地位。女性清修不婚也因超越了傳統認為經血、交媾、死亡與生產帶來不潔的觀念,而具有較神聖的形象。
The notion of female gender in Yiguan Dao is differentiated into two parts: "Dual Gender Equality of the Anterior Heaven" (liangxing xiantian pingdeng 兩性先天平等) and "Limitations of the Female Body of the Posterior Heaven" (nüshen houtian xianzhi 女身後天限制). In Yiguan Dao's doctrine, the Heaven of Principle (litian 理天) is the origin of all things and does not divide yin 陰 (female) and yang 陽 (male), while in their philosophy of human nature, human beings and Heaven share the same origin. From these principles, the source of all things does not distinguish gender. Yiguan Dao is also accustomed to designating Lao Muniang 老□娘, a deity of female form, as the supreme deity which they worship, which transmits a vague awareness of the principle "Dual Gender Equality of the Anterior Heaven." Moreover, Yiguan Dao also acknowledges the physical limitations of the female body and the fact that women cannot be granted heavy responsibility in a family or society. Thus, this gives rise to the inequality after birth. After Sun Huiming 孫慧明 became one of the 18^(th) ancestral masters through her female identity, a new attitude towards female gender arose in the church-"the rise of female's era" (kundao yingyun 坤道應運). Kundao yingyun indicates that the status of females has risen and that women assume significant roles in society and the church. Since Sun Huiming assumed the duty of ancestral master, she is often regarded as the source and validation of kundao yingyun. Sun has become a symbol, representing women who hold the right to cultivation, and even more broadly so for cultivation. This can also be used to explain the ability of modern women to rise to even higher positions within Yiguan Dao. This article also discusses "women of pure cultivation" (qingxiu nüxing 清修女性) within Yiguan Dao, who never marry and devote their entire body and heart to the church. Through investing themselves in religious activities, they seek self-realization and by doing so oppose the traditional custom in society of unmarried women not being listed in the ancestral hall. By dedicating themselves to the church, they hope to obtain a higher position than in the common secular family lineage sacrificial rites. Unmarried women of pure cultivation also embody a more sacred image because they have transcended traditional beliefs of menstruation, sexual intercourse, death, and giving birth, events all laden with notions of uncleanliness.
Relation: 華人宗教研究, 7, 175-198
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文

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