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Title: Five Thunders Ritual (Wulei fa 五雷法) of the Song, Pure Tenuity (Qing-wei dao-fa 清微道法) in the Yuan, and their Significance in Daoist History
Authors: 常志靜
Reiter, Florian C.
Contributors: 華人宗教研究
Keywords: Five Thunders Ritual;Pure Tenuity;daoshi / fashi;Daoist exorcism;transformation into a divinity
Date: 2016-12
Issue Date: 2019-11-29 09:21:32 (UTC+8)
Abstract: Five Thunders rituals and the Pure Tenuity Branch (Qing-wei pai 清微派) emerged and developed in the Song and Yuan eras. Thunder ritual and Pure Tenuity were represented and set to practical use by priests (daoshi 道士 or fashi 法師) of traditional Heavenly Masters Daoism. These Daoists performed singular and independent rituals which were exorcist performances. They were designed to solve any problems that Daoist adherents may encounter in daily life, like disasters in nature or personal illness. Five Thunders amulets or Daoist amulets were the most important ritual tools that Thunder Ritual and Pure Tenuity used. And yet, there were remarkable differences between the amulets of the two Daoist branches. This article describes characteristic features of Five Thunders rituals and Pure Tenuity in the Song and Yuan eras and analyzes different attitudes and practical approaches of the priests in the two groups when their priests performed exorcism. This article explains that various regional Daoist exorcist traditions were documented as canonical manuals and scriptures to be included in the Ming Daoist Canon. Since antiquity there was an orally transmitted Daoist exorcism that in the Song, Yuan, and Ming periods was fixed in literary and finally canonical form. In Daoist history, this process constitutes the significance of Five Thunders Ritual and Pure Tenuity Daoism. This article emphasizes the variety of sources for Pure Tenuity and states that the group was shaped by regional influences. The author quotes outstanding Daoists, such Wang Wen-qing 王文卿, Bai Yu-chan 白玉蟾, Li Shao-wei 李少微, Zhang Xu-jing 張虛 靖, and Zhang Yu-chu 張宇初 and refers to their critical assessments.
Relation: 華人宗教研究, 8, 7-31
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文

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