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An Exploratory Research of Darknet Marketplaces under the Non-Traditional Security Scope: An Example of Five Major Successful Operations against Darknet Marketplaces by Governments
international cooperation theories
hegemonic stability theory
|Issue Date:||2020-01-03 16:00:02 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||暗網作為一個能提供用戶匿名與隱私的特殊網路空間，存在著許多交易市場網站，進行以毒品與詐欺等多種非法物品與服務的跨國交易。針對暗網市場所帶來的挑戰，本研究討論以下三個議題:一為暗網交易市場網站所帶給當今國家的非傳統安全意義，二為國家能夠成功打擊暗網交易市場的原因，三為各國際合作理論中何者更能符合國家打擊暗網交易市場經驗。本研究分別有以下發現:第一，暗網交易市場綜合洋蔥路由暗網(The Onion Router)本身的加密與中繼連線機制以及市場網站所採用之交易與安全機制，驅動暗網上不法交易成長，進而對國家社會與經濟層面造成衝擊，成為非傳統安全威脅來源之一。第二，在成功打擊行動分析與比較上，國家依循著獲知市場負責人真實身分以及網站伺服器位址兩種途徑，並主要仰賴人為操作疏失或漏洞等機緣來獲得線索。第三，在理論適用方面，打擊行動經驗除了與新自由制度主義理論觀點相符外，更因為有美國執法機關關鍵性的技術資源投入，使霸權穩定論得以與新自由制度主義兼容並蓄。本研究因此認為，在新興的資訊議題上，「科技力」能補充過去霸權穩定論較為重視的經濟與軍事力量，成為未來相關學者所需重視的權力型態。|
As a cyberspace that provides anonymity and privacy, Darknet enables worldwide transactions of various illicit goods and services, particularly drugs and fraud, to flourish on the marketplace websites. In response to the challenges brought by Darknet marketplaces, this thesis aims to explore the following issues: (1) the non-traditional security threat implication of Darknet marketplaces, (2) the success factors in past operations against Darknet marketplaces, (3) to find out which international cooperation theory best matches the experiences of past operations against Darknet marketplaces. The findings are as follows: (1) The Onion Router’s employment of encryption and relays, combined with the transaction and security mechanisms of marketplace websites, are the drives behind the growing illicit transactions on Darknet. (2) In terms of the success factors, the operations against Darknet marketplaces mainly rely upon the element of opportunities, such as ineffective operational security and vulnerabilities. (3) On theory application, the experiences of the examined operations are overall consistent with the perspective of neoliberal institutionalism. More importantly, this thesis also recognizes the critical input of technological resources from the USA law enforcement agencies in these operations, which is strongly supported by the hegemonic stability theory, thus indicating a harmony with neoliberal institutionalism. This study, therefore, suggests that in the face of emerging technology issues, the “technological power” should be a form of power worthy of future security studies’ attention that complements the hegemonic stability theory’s existing emphasis on economic and military powers.
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