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Using Stellar Consensus Protocol in VANETs to Ensure the Security of Message Transmission
Stellar Consensus Protocol (SCP)
Federated Byzantine Agreement System
Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET)
|Issue Date:||2020-03-02 11:37:34 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||在車載隨意行動網路中，常透過車與車以及車與路邊基地台(Road Side Unit，RSU) 之間的訊息傳遞，來及時更新路況訊息以達到車輛之間的安全控管；或是在有緊急事件發生時，能傳送緊急訊息請求救援，把正確的路況資訊傳遞給其它車輛，讓其它車輛可以改道避免塞車或避免影響救援的狀況發生。然而，若遇到惡意攻擊者傳送不正確的訊息，或訊息更新速度較慢，反而可能會影響行車安全。例如在塞車或有事故的路段，卻得到順暢的訊息而沒有繞道，導致更塞，甚至影響救援，造成不必要的資源浪費。因此，確保訊息的安全性(safety)及活躍性(liveness)至為重要。|
恆星共識協定(Stellar Consensus Protocol，SCP)是一個是基於聯合拜占庭協議(Federated Byzantine Agreement)開發的共識協定。在原始的Byzantine Agreement中，參與投票的節點必須事先定義，但這並不符合在車載隨意行動網路中，車(節點)會動態移動及增減的狀況。SCP的優點是可動態選擇成員，至於如Bitcoin blockchain使用Proof of Work (PoW)的方式會消耗大量的能源與時間，無法符合車載網路中節點快速移動的需求。SCP可在短短幾秒內快速達成共識並輸出值，同時也基於Federated Byzantine Agreement的幾個特性和理論，可確保整個流程的安全性及活躍性。
Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) provides the message transmission and communication between vehicles and Road Side Unit (RSU) to achieve real-time information update and safety control. When an accident occurs, VANET can be used to send emergency messages to ask for rescue and share this information with others. According to this information, other drivers will detour to avoid the traffic or situations affecting rescue. However, if the message is forged or modified by an attacker, it may not only affect traffic safety but also waste additional resources. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure the security and liveness of the message transmission in VANET.
The Stellar Consensus Protocol (SCP) is a consensus protocol developed based on the Federated Byzantine Agreement. SCP allows nodes to choose members dynamically. Unlike the Proof of Work (PoW) used in Bitcoin blockchain which may consume a lot of energy and time, the SCP algorithm can reach a consensus within a few seconds. Besides, based on the characteristics of the Federated Byzantine Agreement, SCP can ensure the safety and liveness of the entire process.
In this research, vehicles and RSU are the participated nodes involved in the consensus. Vehicles and RSU can choose their own slice from the nearby nodes to form a quorum. Through multiple phases of SCP, nodes are able to reach a consensus and externalize a value which represents the real-time road information. We group the RSUs and vehicles into different tiers and combine the vehicle reputation system to optimize the nomination process. Finally, we evaluate the performance, safety and liveness from the experiments to conclude that SCP is feasible and is able to ensure the security of message transmission.
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