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The Contemporary Significance of Nietzsche's Moral Philosophy: Relativism or Pluralism?
|Keywords:||主人道德 ; 奴隸道德; 均質人; 例外人;開放原始碼運動 |
master morality ; slave morality ; average man ; exceptional man ; open source movements
|Issue Date:||2020-05-26 10:52:06 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||身為所謂後現代思想的鼻祖之一，Nietzsche的觀點論立場與超越善惡的主張，經常被批評為虛無的道德相對主義。但在另一方面，《超越善與惡》（Beyond Good and Evil）一書卻正是其筆下新哲人建立未來哲學的宣示，且其作法在形式上有如Plato的哲學家皇帝。究竟Nietzsche的道德哲學是否還有規範上的判準？以及，他的思想主張對於當代的我們可以有什麼樣的啟示？本文主張，Nietzsche的超克人理想與生命哲學要求每個人活出自己獨有的生命。這樣的道德哲學以一致性的道德規範來鼓勵差異，進而促成多元化的發展。一方面，多元主義是「熱愛命運」的必然結果。另一方面，有別於支撐科學理性的斷而再斷之形式邏輯，植基於Nietzsche道德哲學底層則是含混思考。正是Nietzsche道德思想別開生面的特點，與其當代意義之所在。|
Nietzsche, as the forerunner of so-called postmodern thought, is frequently criticized or interpreted as a relativist, especially about his conception of perspectivism and ＂beyond good and evil＂. However, as shown in the subtitle of the book Beyond Good and Evil, it is Nietzsche's prelude to the philosophy of the future. And in this book, Nietzsche advocated his politics of new philosophers. At least in the forms, this opinion is not so different from the philosopher kings of Plato, who is always criticized by Nietzsche. So the question is whether Nietzsche sets up a normative criterion, and what his thought can suggest to us. In this paper, I contend that Nietzsche's ideal of overman and his philosophy of life ask us to live our unique lives. His moral philosophy is to promote plurality with a singular standard of morality. The plurality is the outcome of ＂amor fati＂. And the logic of his thought is not only different from the logic of clearcutting duality which supports general modern, scientific reasoning, but also distinguished from Hegel's dialectics. This is the key feature of Nietzsche's moral philosophy and the way in which it can edify us.
|Relation:||政治與社會哲學評論, No.70, pp.1-56|
|DOI 連結:||https://doi.org/ 10.6523/SOCIETAS.201909_(70).001|
|Appears in Collections:||[社會學系] 期刊論文|
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