Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/130482


Title: 一位台灣青年英語學習者的社群意識與學習自主之形成:個案比較正規與非正規英語課室經驗
Formation of a Taiwanese Young Adult’s Sense of Community and Learner Agency: A Case Study on the Comparison of Formal and Non-formal English Classroom Experiences
Authors: 王世銓
Wang, Shih-Chuan
Contributors: 招靜琪
Chao, Chin-Chi
王世銓
Wang, Shih-Chuan
Keywords: 社群意識
學習者自主
正規教育
非正規教育
sense of community (SOC)
learner agency
formal education
non-formal education
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-07-01 13:29:25 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在東亞地區以英語為外語的環境中,非正規教育的存在已不容忽視。過去雖已有研究探討非正規教育之於正規教育的「影子教育」特性,在英語教學的領域中,仍少有研究從質性角度探討學習者在兩種教育環境中的學習經驗。因此,本研究透過McMillan and Chavis (1986) 的社群意識(SOC)理論及Larsen-Freeman (2019) 的複雜動態系統理論(CDST),首先探討一位台灣青年英語學習者在正規與非正規教育環境中社群意識的形成。接著,本研究進而探詢這些社群意識如何與他的英語學習者自主互動。資料來自兩階段的訪談,並採Carspecken (1996) 的再建構分析法進行分析。 研究結果顯示,從小學到高中階段,社群意識與學習者自主都呈現遞減的趨勢。然而,與學習者互動的老師及同學、背後的文化因子(如文憑主義),及學習者本身的學習環境(如私立學校)都有可能使社群意識與學習者自主呈現不同的風貌。本研究不僅分析理論架構中的元素如何互動,也透過此個案發現了兩個理論框架相關聯與互動的可能。此外,本文也針對正規與非正規教育的三種不同關係(互補、補充與平行)進行討論。在教學上,本研究建議為提升英語教室中學習者自主,透過更多實際使用英語的機會與更多同儕互動來建構英語學習的社群意識將帶來實質的幫助。
In EFL contexts such as those in East Asia, the presence of non-formal education (e.g., English private tutoring, or EPT) cannot be ignored. Prior studies have demonstrated the shadowing nature of non-formal education to formal education (e.g., mainstream schooling). However, in the field of TESOL, qualitative studies on learning experiences in both formal and non-formal educational contexts remain insufficient. Therefore, drawing on McMillan and Chavis’s (1986) framework of a sense of community (SOC) and Larsen-Freeman’s (2019) Complex Dynamic Systems Theory (CDST) of learner agency, this study first examines the SOCs of a Taiwanese young adult in both formal and non-formal English learning contexts. Then, the study explores how the SOCs interact and shape the learner’s English learner agency. Data were collected from two phases of interviews and were analyzed by reconstructive analysis (Carspecken, 1996). Results showed that from the elementary school period to the senior high school period, while the trend of a diminishing SOC and learner agency was evident, the formation of SOCs and learner agency remained complex according to how the learner interacted with teachers or peers, and how cultural backgrounds (i.e., credentialism) or studying contexts (i.e., private schools) may have had an underlying impact. Theoretically, such findings not only explained how the framework and their respective elements work but highlighted how the two theories can mutually relate to each other. Moreover, three kinds of dynamic relations (i.e., complementary, supplementary, and parallel) between formal and non-formal education were also depicted through analyzing the learner’s experience. Pedagogically, this study suggests that to enhance learner agency in classrooms, the creation of English learning SOCs through more English-use and peer engagement could be helpful.
Reference: Ahearn, L. M. (2001). Language and agency. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30, 109–137.
Block, D. (2008). EFL narratives and English-mediated identities: Two ships passing in the night? In P. Kalaja, V. Menezes & A. M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Narratives of learning and teaching EFL (pp. 141–154). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bray, M. (1999). The shadow education system: Private tutoring and its implications for planners. Paris: UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning.
Bray, M. (2009). Confronting the shadow education system: What government policies for what private tutoring. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).
Bray, M. (2013). Shadow education: Comparative perspectives on the expansion and implications of private supplementary tutoring. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 77, 412–420.
Bray, M., & Lykins. C. (2012). Shadow Education: Private Tutoring and its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia. Asian Development Bank.
Brown, J. (2009). Self-Regulatory Strategies and Agency in Self-Instructed Language Learning: A Situated View. The Modern Language Journal, 93(4), 570–583.
Buhrman, T., & Di Paolo, E. (2017). The sense of agency—A phenomenological consequence of enacting sensorimotor schemes. Phenomenological Cognitive Science, 16, 207–236.
Carspecken, P. F. (1996). Critical ethnography in educational research: A theoretical and practical guide. New York: Routledge.
Chen, I. W. L., & Hsieh, J. J. C. (2011). English language in Taiwan: An examination of its use in society and education in schools. In A. Feng (Ed.), English language education across Greater China (pp. 70–94). New York: Multilingual Matters.
Chen, S., & Tsai, Y. (2012). Research on English teaching and learning: Taiwan (2004-2009). Language Teaching, 45(2), 180–201.
Dawson, W. (2010). Private tutoring and mass schooling in East Asia: Reflections of inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 14–24.
de Silva, W. A., Gunawardane, C., Jayaweera, S., Perera, L., Rupasinghe, S. and Wijetunge, S. (1991). Extra School Instruction, Social Equity and Educational Quality. Singapore: International Development Research Centre.
de Silva, W. A. (1994). Extra-school tutoring in the Asian context with special reference to Sri Lanka. Maharagama: Department of Educational Research, National Institute of Education.
Douglas Fir Group. (2016). A transdisciplinary framework for SLA in a multilingual world. Modern Language Journal, 100 (Supplement 2016), 19–47.
Duff, P. (2014). Case study research on language learning and use. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 34, 1–23.
Duranti, A. (2004). Agency in Language (pp. 451–473). In A. Duranti (Ed.) A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Ellis, L. (2002). Teaching from experience: A new perspective on the non-native teacher in adult ESL. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 25(1), 71–107.
Emirbayer, M., & Mische, A. (1998). What is agency? American Journal of Sociology, 103, 962–1023.
Fergany, N. (1994). Survey of access to primary education and acquisition of basic literacy skills in three governorates in Egypt. Cairo: UNICEF; Almishkat Centre for Research and Training.
Flyvbjerg, B. (2004). Five misunderstandings about case-study research. In C. Seale, G. Gobo, J. F. Gubrium & D. Silverman (Eds.), Qualitative research practice (pp. 390–404). London: Sage.
Gao, X. (2010). Strategic language learning: The roles of agency and context. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Huang, H. T. (2017). Private English tutoring and adolescents’ motivation to learn English as a foreign language: A self system perspective. Taiwan Journal of TESOL, 14(1), 1–36.
Hussein, M. G. A. (1987). Private tutoring: A hidden educational problem. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 18(1), 91–96.
International standard classification of education: ISCED 2011. (2012). Montreal, Quebec: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
Jheng, Y. J. (2015). The influence of private tutoring on middle-class students’ use of in-class time in formal schools in Taiwan. International Journal of Educational Development, 40, 1–8.
Kachru, B. (1992). Teaching world Englishes. In B. Kachru (Ed.), The other tongue: English across cultures (pp. 355–366). Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Kanno, Y., & Harklau, L. (2012). Linguistic minority students go to college. London, UK: Routledge.
Kwo, O., & Bray, M. (2014). Understanding the nexus between mainstream schooling and private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and voices of Hong Kong secondary students. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(4), 403–416.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2012). Complex, dynamic systems: A new transdisciplinary theme for applied linguistics? Language Teaching, 45(2), 202–214.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2015). Saying what we mean: Making a case for ‘language acquisition’ to become ‘language development.’ Language Teaching, 48, 491–505.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2019). On Language Learner Agency: A Complex Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective. Modern Language Journal, 103(1), 61–79.
Lasagabaster, D. & Sierra, J. M. (Eds.) (2001). Language Awareness in the Foreign Language Classroom. Zarautz: Universidad del País Vasco - Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea.
Lee, B. (2010). The pre-university English-educational background of college freshmen in a foreign language program: A tale of diverse private education and English proficiency. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 69–82.
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Liu, J. (2012). Does cram schooling matter? Who goes to cram schools? Evidence from Taiwan. International Journal of Educational Development, 32(1), 46–52.
Liu, P. K. (1998). Private tuition for primary students in Hong Kong. B. Ed. (Primary) project report. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong.
Ma, L. P. F. (2012a). Advantages and disadvantages of native‐and nonnative‐English‐speaking teachers: Student perceptions in Hong Kong. TESOL Quarterly, 46(2), 280–305.
Marimuthu, T., J. S. Singh, K. Ahmad, H. K. Lim, H. Mukherjee, S. Oman, T. Chelliah, J. R. Sharma, N. M. Salleh, L. Yong, L. T. Leong, S. Sukarman, L. K. Thong, and W. Jamaluddin. (1991). Extra-school Instruction, Social Equity and Educational Quality. Report prepared for the International Development Research Centre, Singapore.
McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6–23.
Mercer, S. (2011). Understanding learner agency as a complex dynamic system. System, 39(4), 427–436.
Mercer, S. (2012). The complexity of learner agency. Apples-Journal of Applied Language Studies, 6(2), 41–59.
Mercer, S. (2019). Language Learner Engagement: Setting the Scene. Second Handbook of English Language Teaching Springer International Handbooks of Education, 643–660.
Ministry of Education. (2020). Management information systems of short-term cram schools in special municipality and other cities. Retrieved May 1, 2020, from https://bsb.kh.edu.tw/afterschool/register/statistic_10_total.jsp
Mori, I., & Baker, D. (2010). The origin of universal shadow education: What the supplemental education phenomenon tells us about the postmodern institution of education. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 36–48.
Murray G. (2009). Narrative inquiry. In J. Heigham & R.A. Croker (Eds.), Qualitative research in applied linguistics (pp. 45–65). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Nanayakkara, G. L. S.& Ranaweera, M. (1994). Impact of Private Tuition and the Educational Challenges of the 21st Century. Economic Review (People’s Bank, Colombo), 20 (2 & 3):11–14, 17.
Sawada, T., & Kobayashi, S. (1986). An analysis of the effect of arithmetic and mathematics education at juku. Translated with an afterword by Horvath, P. Tokyo: National Institute for Educational Research.
Solomon, D., Battistich, V., Kim, D., & Watson, M. (1996). Teacher practices associated with students sense of the classroom as a community. Social Psychology of Education, 1(3), 235–267.
Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Townley, G., Katz, J., Wandersman, A., Skiles, B., Schillaci, M. J., Timmerman, B. E., & Mousseau, T. A. (2013). Exploring the Role of Sense of Community in The Undergraduate Transfer Student Experience. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3), 277–290.
Varghese, M. (2012). A linguistic minority student’s discursive framing of agency and structure. In Y. Kanno & L. Harklau (Eds.), Linguistic minority immigrants go to college: Preparation, access, and persistence (pp. 148–162). New York, NY: Routledge.
Yeh, H. N. (2000). Implementation of English portfolio assessment in primary and junior schools. Journal of Caves English Teaching (CET), 30, 11–14.
Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd Ed.). Sage Publications.
Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th Ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Yung, K. W. H. (2015). Learning English in the shadows: Understanding Chinese learners’ experiences of private tutoring. TESOL Quarterly, 49(4), 707–732.
Yung, K. W. H. (2019). Exploring the L2 selves of senior secondary students in English private tutoring in Hong Kong. System, 80, 120–133.
Zhan, S., Bray, M., Wang, D., Lykins, C., & Kwo, O. (2013). The effectiveness of private tutoring: Students’ perceptions in comparison with mainstream schooling in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Education Review, 14(4), 495–509.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
英國語文學系
106551013
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106551013
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[英國語文學系] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
101301.pdf1607KbAdobe PDF0View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing