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Formation of a Taiwanese Young Adult’s Sense of Community and Learner Agency: A Case Study on the Comparison of Formal and Non-formal English Classroom Experiences
sense of community (SOC)
|Issue Date:||2020-07-01 13:29:25 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||在東亞地區以英語為外語的環境中，非正規教育的存在已不容忽視。過去雖已有研究探討非正規教育之於正規教育的「影子教育」特性，在英語教學的領域中，仍少有研究從質性角度探討學習者在兩種教育環境中的學習經驗。因此，本研究透過McMillan and Chavis (1986) 的社群意識（SOC）理論及Larsen-Freeman (2019) 的複雜動態系統理論（CDST），首先探討一位台灣青年英語學習者在正規與非正規教育環境中社群意識的形成。接著，本研究進而探詢這些社群意識如何與他的英語學習者自主互動。資料來自兩階段的訪談，並採Carspecken (1996) 的再建構分析法進行分析。 研究結果顯示，從小學到高中階段，社群意識與學習者自主都呈現遞減的趨勢。然而，與學習者互動的老師及同學、背後的文化因子（如文憑主義），及學習者本身的學習環境（如私立學校）都有可能使社群意識與學習者自主呈現不同的風貌。本研究不僅分析理論架構中的元素如何互動，也透過此個案發現了兩個理論框架相關聯與互動的可能。此外，本文也針對正規與非正規教育的三種不同關係（互補、補充與平行）進行討論。在教學上，本研究建議為提升英語教室中學習者自主，透過更多實際使用英語的機會與更多同儕互動來建構英語學習的社群意識將帶來實質的幫助。|
In EFL contexts such as those in East Asia, the presence of non-formal education (e.g., English private tutoring, or EPT) cannot be ignored. Prior studies have demonstrated the shadowing nature of non-formal education to formal education (e.g., mainstream schooling). However, in the field of TESOL, qualitative studies on learning experiences in both formal and non-formal educational contexts remain insufficient. Therefore, drawing on McMillan and Chavis’s (1986) framework of a sense of community (SOC) and Larsen-Freeman’s (2019) Complex Dynamic Systems Theory (CDST) of learner agency, this study first examines the SOCs of a Taiwanese young adult in both formal and non-formal English learning contexts. Then, the study explores how the SOCs interact and shape the learner’s English learner agency. Data were collected from two phases of interviews and were analyzed by reconstructive analysis (Carspecken, 1996). Results showed that from the elementary school period to the senior high school period, while the trend of a diminishing SOC and learner agency was evident, the formation of SOCs and learner agency remained complex according to how the learner interacted with teachers or peers, and how cultural backgrounds (i.e., credentialism) or studying contexts (i.e., private schools) may have had an underlying impact. Theoretically, such findings not only explained how the framework and their respective elements work but highlighted how the two theories can mutually relate to each other. Moreover, three kinds of dynamic relations (i.e., complementary, supplementary, and parallel) between formal and non-formal education were also depicted through analyzing the learner’s experience. Pedagogically, this study suggests that to enhance learner agency in classrooms, the creation of English learning SOCs through more English-use and peer engagement could be helpful.
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