Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/131076


Title: 淨土解脫觀會通儒家家庭倫理—— 中華華藏淨宗學會居士教育之論述結構
Confucian Family Ethics Intersecting with Pure Land Soteriology: The Discursive Structures of the Lay Education of ‘The Corporation Republic of Hwa Dzan’
Authors: 顧頡鋒
Kukowka, Stefan
Contributors: 李玉珍
Li Yu-chen
顧頡鋒
Kukowka, Stefan
Keywords: 中華華藏淨宗學會
淨空法師
淨土法門
當代臺灣佛教
居士佛教
論述分析
The Corporation Republic of Hwa Dzan
Jingkong
Pure Land Buddhism
Contemporary Taiwanese Buddhism
Lay Buddhism
Discourse Analysis
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-08-03 17:51:18 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 摘要
本論文著重闡述一個近30年來興起之宗教團體,此團體尚未有學者發表研究專題,即「中華華藏淨宗學會」。迄今為止,近現代臺灣佛教研究主要以佛光山、佛法鼓山及慈濟功德會等自稱人間佛教團體及其創始人物為主軸進行研究,尚未討論在臺灣宗教生態中扮演著至關重要角色與影響力的華藏淨宗學會。此團體由淨空法師(1927)於1989年成立,而自1993年由淨空法師大弟子悟道法師承接宏願,「中華華藏淨宗學會」提倡獨一無二的往生阿彌陀佛淨土思想,其中深刻闡明,僅僅通過念佛是無法獲得往生,而出家眾與在家眾必須於此世專注以儒家即道家經典為主的修行,方能獲得往生。
由淨空法師和悟道所帶領之「中華華藏淨宗學會」強調,改善命運和往生西方極樂的契機,並非透過念佛、禮佛、參會法會等等活動實踐,而必須基於於日常生活中的道德行為,亦即忠孝仁愛和禮義廉恥。這種根深柢固的儒家價值觀被淨空法師和悟道法師所帶領之「中華華藏淨宗學會」植入佛教體系並逐漸「佛教化」,並透過各種渠道傳播「五大科目」,此修行法門著重針對家庭倫理等領域,因此可以得出結論,其目標受眾是在家眾。田野調查表明,這些居士中的大多數是中年和老年婦女,他們是傳播儒家價值觀及相關家庭倫理的主要受眾。
因為德國、英語及中國學術界的先前著作尚未全面討論這一現象,並對淨空法師本人的研究只有幾篇文章中有介紹,而本研究的目的是通過廣泛的實地考察(訪談,參與者觀察,參與等),文獻研究來解釋此團體如何納入儒家和道家經典,如何制定一種儒佛式的淨土修行體系,而如何創造一種獨特無二的論述社群(discourse community)。通過使用福柯(Michel Foucault)的論述(discourse)理論概念可以分析此團內部的權力和知識結構。
The present thesis seeks to shed light on a religious group that has not yet been the focus of comprehensive research and was overshadowed by the founding figures of “Buddhist Empires” such as Buddha Light Mountain, Dharma Drum Mountain and Tzu Chi, but plays a vital role in the religious ecology of Taiwan beneath the afore mentions salient Buddhist groups – ‘The Corporation Republic of Hwa Dzan’ (zhonghua huazang jingzong xuehui 中華華藏淨宗學會). Founded by Ven. Jingkong (1927 - ) in 1989 and run by Ven. Wudao (1951 - ), this Pure Land Group displays distinct characteristics in terms of its advocated path towards rebirth into Amitābha’s Pure Land. The mindful recollection or mere invocation of Amitābha’s name is not enough to realise rebirth, rather, monastics and laypeople have to focus on a this-worldly cultivation based on Confucian and Daoist scriptures. Jingkong and Hwa Dzan emphasise that the improvement of one’s fate – and therefore the chance to be reborn into the Pure Land – is not the result of humble worship or the potential effectiveness of rituals or even the renunciation of all worldly distractions, that is ‘going forth’ (chujia 出家), it is rather based on moral conduct in daily life, through acts of filial piety, loyalty, honesty, and humility – which are de facto Confucian values. These ‘Buddhicised’ Confucian values are propagated through various channels (online media, press, dharma talks etc.) and address specifically the sphere of family ethics. Thus, it can be concluded that its target audience are laypeople who are trained and educated to further spread these values. Fieldwork has shown, that the majority of these lay people are middle age and older women who serve as the main conduit through which Jingkong and Hwa Dzan can exert influence on family ethics. Furthermore, on one hand, Hwa Dzan’s propagation of (their) dharma reflects a strong centripetal inclination towards the centre of authority (Jingkong) and by this creates an exclusive discursive community and certain narratives manifesting a word of mouth communication. On the other hand, Hwa Dzan’s incorporation of certain non-Buddhist scriptures reflects a relative openness towards other traditions which are interpreted from a Buddhist perspective and ultimately ‘buddhicised’ if they support specific aspects of their interpretation of the dharma, if not they are rejected. Thus, this thesis aims at analysing the creation of this exclusive discursive community in light of Hwa Dzan’s lay education.
Previous works of German, English and Chinese academia have not yet comprehensively addressed this phenomenon because it mainly focused on prominent Buddhist groups and figures. Even Ven. Jingkong himself – the founder of the yet to be investigated group – was only covered in paragraphs and few articles, even though there is a large number of people inspired by his teachings. Thus, it is the aim of this study to fill the blank spot on the religious tableau of Taiwan through extensive fieldwork (interviews, participant observation, participation etc.), literary research to explain the centripetal tendency on the membership level and the centrifugal inclination towards Confucian and Daoist thought through which an exclusive discourse community is created. This discourse will be analysed by applying Michel Foucault’s theoretical concepts of ‘discourse’ to explain internal power and communication structures.
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Canonical Scriptures
J31nB271 Reading Tripiṭaka for Understanding the Precepts 閱藏知津
T01n0001 Dīgha Nikāya 長阿含經
T01n0016 Sigālovāda Sutta 尸迦羅越六方禮經
T01n0017 Sutra of Siṅgāla善生子經
T03n0152 Sūtra on the Collection of the Six Perfections 六度集經
T03n0174 Śyāmakajātaka-sūtra 薩睒子經
T09n0262 Lotus Sutra妙法蓮華經
T09n0278 Flower Garland Sutra 大方廣佛華嚴經
T10n0279 Flower Garland Sutra 大方廣佛華嚴經
T10n0293 Flower Garland Sutra大方廣佛華嚴經
T11n0310 Tathāgataʼs Sermon on the Contemplation of the Buddha of Limitless Life
大寶積經無量壽如來會
T12n0360 Sutra of Buddha’s Sermon on the Buddha of Limitless Life 佛說無量壽經
T12n0361 The Infinite Life Purity Impartiality Awakenment Sutra 無量清淨平等覺經
T12n0362 The Amitābha Sutra 阿彌陀經
T12n0363 Buddha’s Sermon on the Infinite Life Adornment Sutra
佛說大乘無量壽莊嚴經
T12n0364 Buddha’s Sermon on the Great Amitābha Sutra 佛說大阿彌陀經
T12n0365 The Contemplation Sūtra 佛説觀無量壽經
T14n0475 Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra 維摩詰所說經
T14n0507 Ajātaśatru sūtra 佛說未生冤經
T16n0686 The Sūtra on Repaying the Kindness by Making Offerings 報恩奉盆經
T17n0779 Sutra on the Eight Realisations of Great Beings 佛說八大人覺經
T19n0945 Śūraṅgama Sūtra 楞嚴經
T22n1425 Mahāsaṅghika-vinaya 摩訶僧祇律
T24n1488 Sutra on Upasaka Precepts 優婆塞戒經
T23n1442 Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya 根本說一切有部毘奈耶
T24n1471 On the Ten śrāmaṇera Precepts and Deportment 沙彌十戒法并威儀
T24n1472 Srāmaṇera Deportment 沙彌威儀
T24n1473 The Buddha Speaks on the Sutra of Ten Precepts and Rules
佛說沙彌十戒儀則經
T24n1474 Sutra on the śrāmaṇerī Precepts 沙彌尼戒經
T24n1475 Treaties on śrāmaṇerī Precepts 沙彌尼離戒文
T25n1507 Treatise on Differentiating Virtue and Merit 分別功德論
T25n1509 Treatise on the Perfection of Great Wisdom 大智度論
T33n1708 Annotations to the Scripture for Humane Kings 仁王經疏
T33n1709 Commentary to the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra for Humane Kings Protecting
Their Countries 仁王護國般若波羅蜜多經疏
T35n1735 Annotations to the Flower Garland Sutra 大方廣佛華嚴經疏
T37n1753 Commentary on the Sutra on Contemplation of the Buddha of Immeasurable
Life觀無量壽佛經疏
T40n1815 Recordings of the Ancient Teachings of the Brahma’s Net Sutra
梵網經古迹記
T44n1851 Compendium of the Great Purport of the Mahayana 大乘義章
T46n1925 First Gate to the Succession of the Dharma-realm 法界次第初門
T47n1958 Collection on [the Land] of Peace and Joy 安樂集
T50n2059 Biographies of Eminent Monks高僧傳
T52n2102 Treaties on the three Destructions [of Buddhism] 三破論 in 弘明集
T52n2115 Tanjin wenji 鐔津文集
T53n2122 A Grove of Pearls in the Garden of the Dharma 法苑珠林
T55n2154 Record of Śākyamuniʼs Teachings Compiled During the Kaiyuan Period
開元釋教錄
T85n2887 The Sūtra on the Profound Kindness of Parents 父母恩重經
X60n1118 Extended Annotations to the Outline of Precepts and Etiquette of
śrāmaṇeras 沙彌律儀要略增註
X60n1120 Combined Reference of the Precepts and Etiquette of śrāmaṇera
沙彌律儀毗尼日用合參
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Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. “Venerable Jingkong [Explains]: Why Do We Need to Study the Dizigui and Ganyingpian for Leaning Buddhism? (Jinkong Fashi Xuefo Weishenme Yao Xue Dizigui Weishenme Yao Xue Ganyingpian 淨空法師:學佛為什麼要學《弟子規》,為什麼要學《感應篇》?).” Accessed December 27, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yianeHaPwZM.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. “Venerable Jingkong Bao'en Lecutre Hall (Jingkong Fashi Yingyin Baoen Jiangtang 淨空法師影音報恩講堂).” Accessed February 6, 2020. http://www.amtb.tw/baen/jiangtang.asp?web_choice=99&web_rel_index=651.
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Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. “Venerable Jingkong Lectures on the Three Meritorious Acts (Jingkong Fashi Jiang Jingye Sanfu Malaxiya 淨空法師談_淨業三福 馬來西亞).” Accessed May 10, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4iJ2jJoK4NY.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. “Venerable Jingkong Lectures the Avatamsaka Sutra (Dafangguang Fohuayan Jing Di 1662 Juan/shipin/ Wenzi Jingkongfashi Jiang 大方广佛华严经(第1662卷/视频/文字)净空法师主讲).” Accessed May 15, 2020. http://dywhjt.com/29310.html.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. “Venerable Jingkong [Explains]: Some People Not Only Criticise Xia Lianju's Wuliangshoujing Compilation, but Also Speak About a Jingkong Phenomenon (Jingkong Laofashi Xianzai Youren Budan Gongji Xia Lian Ju Laojushi De Dasheng Wuliang Shoujing Huijiben Bingqie Hai Gaosheng Jinghu Shenme Jingkong Xianxiang 淨空老法師:現在有人不但攻擊夏蓮居老居士的《大乘無量壽經》會集本,並且還高聲驚呼什麼『淨空現象』?.” Accessed June 13, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yq1kQpKhKr0.
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Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. “The Three Meritorious Acts and Six Harmonies (Sanfu Liuhe 三福六和).” Accessed May 25, 2020. http://www.amtb.tw/bt/amtb_jindian.asp?web_ch
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Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. “Learning Buddhism and Buddhist Studies, Part One (Xuefo Xu Foxue Shangji 學佛與佛學,上集).” Accessed February 6, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UO7xSygRIcA.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. The Dasheng Wuliangshoujing - Short Notes and Simple Explanations (Dasheng Wuliangshoujing Jianzhu Yijie 大乘無量壽經簡註易解). Hongkong 香港: Hong Kong Buddhist Education Foundation 香港佛陀教育協會, 2010.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. “Venerable Jingkong [Explaines]: TV and Internet Are the Places of Practice of Mara (Jingkong Laoheshang Xianzai De Dianshi He Wanglu Shi Mowang De Daochang 淨空老和尚:現在的電視和網路是魔王的道場).” Accessed June 11, 2020. t.ly/XDuI.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. Lecture Notes of Buddhism in Fourteen Lectures (Foxue Shisijiang Jiangji 佛學十四講講記). Taipei 臺北: Hwa Dzan Pure Land Learning Association 華藏淨宗學會, 2011.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. Personal Notes of Buddha’s Sermon on the Infinite Life Adornment Purity Impartiality and Awakenment Sūtra (Foshuo Wuliangshou Zhuangyan Qingjing Pingdeng Juejing Qinwen Ji 佛說無量壽莊嚴清淨平等覺經親聞記). Taipei 臺北: Hwa Dzan Pure Land Learning Association 華藏淨宗學會, 2011.
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Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. An Introduction to Pure Land (Jingtu Rumen 淨土入門). Hongkong 香港: Hong Kong Buddhist Education Foundation 香港佛陀教育協會, 2012.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. “Learn Buddhism Do Not Engage in Buddhist Studies (Xuefo Buyao Gao Foxue 學佛,不要搞佛學).” Accessed February 6, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5dFxEnaa95Q.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. Lecture Notes on the Wanqing Collection (Wanqingji Jiangji 晚晴集講記). Taipei 臺北: Hwa Dzan Pure Land Learning Association 華藏淨宗學會, 2012.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. Regulations of Cultivation for Pure Land [Society] Students (Jingzong Tongxue Xiuxing Shouze 淨宗同學修行守則). 臺北: Hwa Dzan Pure Land Learning Association 華藏淨宗學會, 2012.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. “Where Do I Start Learning Buddhism? How Do I Cultivate the Six Paramitas? (Xuefo Congnali Xiashou Ruhe Xiuxue Liudu 學佛從哪裡下手?如何修學六度?).” Accessed May 26, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-VH6LswSQE.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. Collection of the Eternal Thoughts of the Future Buddha and the Three Sages (Laifo Sansheng Yongsi Ji 來佛三聖永思集). Hongkong 香港: Hong Kong Buddhist Education Foundation 香港佛陀教育協會, 2014.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. Lecture Notes on the Three Meritorious Acts (Jingye Sanfu Jiangji 淨業三福講記). Taipei 臺北: Hwa Dzan Pure Land Learning Association 華藏淨宗學會, 2014.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. Understanding Buddhist Education (Renshi Fotuo Jiaoyu 認識佛陀教育). Taipei 臺北: Hwa Dzan Pure Land Learning Association 華藏淨宗學會, 2016.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. An Effective Strategy to Save the World: The Importance of Prenatal Education (Xiandai Jiushi Liangfang Taijiao De Zhongyao 現代救世良方-胎教的重要). Taipei 臺北: Hwa Dzan Pure Land Learning Association 華藏淨宗學會, 2017.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. A Summary of General Knowledge on Buddhism (Fojiao Changshi Gaishuo 佛教常識概說). Taipei 臺北: Hwa Dzan Pure Land Learning Association 華藏淨宗學會, 2019.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. Essential Principles for Cultivation (Xiuxing Yaodao 修行要道). Taipei 臺北: Hwa Dzan Pure Land Learning Association 華藏淨宗學會, 2019.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. Moral and Ethical Education (Lunli Daode 倫理道德). Taipei 臺北: Hwa Dzan Pure Land Learning Association 華藏淨宗學會, 2019.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. Wealth, Long Life, Health, Tranquillity (Fu Shou Ning Kang 富壽康寧). Taipei 臺北: Hwa Dzan Pure Land Learning Association 華藏淨宗學會, 2019.
Shi Jingkong 釋淨空. “Why Do I Chose Pure Land and the [Xia Lianju] Collection? (Weishenme Xuanze Jingtu Xuanze Huijiben 為什麼選擇淨土、選擇會集本?).” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IF8__NL39bw.
Shi Jingzong 釋淨宗. Simple Explanations of the 18th Vow [Of Amitābha]’ (Dishiba Yuan Qianshi 第十八願淺釋). Taipei 臺北: Pure Land Education Foundation 淨土宗文教基金會, 2006.
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Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
宗教研究所
106156011
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106156011
Data Type: thesis
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