Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Authoritarian Regime Types and Environmental Performance
|Issue Date:||2020-08-03 18:38:02 (UTC+8)|
Climate change has become an ever-increasingly important topic in a multitude of academic fields. A lot of the research on regime type and environmental degradation has focused on democracies versus non-democracies, and concluded that because democracies outperform in this sector, then democratization could be the solution. However, viewpoints seem to be shifting in terms of whether this research is as accurate in the current environment. This paper attempts to reanalyze this topic with a specific focus on whether certain authoritarian regime types, if any, have an effect on carbon dioxide levels within a regime. I argue that not only will authoritarian regime types have an effect, but that party regimes will have the greatest effect in limiting or decreasing carbon dioxide emissions from 1997-2010. To provide empirical support, I include a vast literature review on the topic and utilize two different quantitative methods of analysis: time-series cross-sectional and spatial analysis using Geographic Information Systems. Statistical results mostly confirm that authoritarian regime type can play a role in determining carbon dioxide emission levels, but on the contrary, it is military regimes and not party regimes that have the greatest effect on CO2 levels. However, after robustness checks, it seems to be that limitations skew the results due to a short time-frame and small sample size. This results in the secondary analysis concluding that, while positive, regime type is not significant in determining carbon dioxide emissions, but rather that GDP per capita has a greater effect.
|Reference:||Art, David. 2012. “What Do We Know About Authoritarianism After Ten Years?” Comparative Politics, 44(3): 351-373. www.jstor.org/stable/2321280.|
Azomahou, Théophile, François Laisney, and Phu Nguyen Van. 2006. “Economic development and CO2 emissions: A nonparametric panel approach.” Journal of Public Economics 90(6-7): 1347-1363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2005.09.005.
Baltagi, Badi H. 2008. “Fixed effects and random effects.” In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, ed. Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 1–6.
Beeson, Mark. 2010. “The Coming of Environmental Authoritarianism.” Environmental Politics 19(2): 276-294.
Bell, Andrew, and Kevin Jones. 2015. “Explaining fixed effects: Random effects modeling of time-series cross-sectional and panel data.” Political Science Research and Methods 3(1): 133–153.
Bonvecchi, Alejandro, and Emilia Simison. 2017. “Legislative Institutions and Performance in Authoritarian Regimes.” Comparative Politics 49(4): 521-539.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Alastair Smith, Randolph M. Siverson, and James D. Morrow. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Cao, Xun, and Hugh Ward. 2015. "Winning Coalition Size, State Capacity, and Time Horizons: An Application of Modified Selectorate Theory to Environmental Public Goods Provision.” International Studies Quarterly 59: 264–279.
Carpini, Michael X. Delli. 2000. “Gen.com: Youth, Civic Engagement, and the New Information Environment.” Political Communication 17(4): 341-349.
Cavatorta, Francesco. 2012. “Conclusion.” In Civil Society, Activism under Authoritarian Rule: A Comparative Perspective, eds. Francesco Cavatorta. London, UK: Routledge.
Chandra, Siddharth, and Nita Rudra. 2013. "Reassessing the Links between Regime Type and Economic Performance: Why Some Authoritarian Regimes Show Stable Growth and Other Do Not." British Journal of Political Science 45: 253-285.
Chang, Wen-Yang, and Dan Wei. 2019. “Natural Resources and Infectious Diseases: The Case of Malaria, 2000-2014.” The Social Science Journal 56: 324-336.
Cherniwchan, Jevan. 2012. “Economic Growth, Industrialization, and the Environment.” Resource and Energy Economics 34(4): 442-467.
Clark, Tom S., and Drew A. Linzer. 2014. “Should I use fixed or random effects?” Political Science Research and Methods 3(2): 399–408.
CNN Editorial Research. 2020. “Kyoto Protocol Fast Facts.” CNN, April 8. https://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/26/world/kyoto-protocol-fast-facts/index.html.
Diamond, Larry. 2008. “The Democratic Rollback.” Foreign Affairs, March/April.
Freedom House. 2019. “Democracy in Retreat.” Freedom in the World. Available at https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2019/democracy-retreat.
Gandhi, Jennifer, and Adam Przeworski. 2007. “Dictatorial Institutions and the Survival of Autocrats.” Comparative Political Studies 40(11): 1279-1301.
Gat, Azar. 2007. “The Return of Authoritarian Great Powers.” Foreign Affairs, July/August.
Geddes, Barbara. 1999a. “Authoritarian Breakdown: Empirical Test of a Game Theoretic Argument.” in Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta: 1-55.
Geddes, Barbara. 1999b. “What Do We Know About Democratization After Twenty Years?” Annual Review of Political Science 2: 115-144.
Geddes, Barbara. 2005. “The Role of Elections in Authoritarian Regimes.” Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Washington, DC.
Geddes, Barbara, Joseph Wright, and Erica Frantz. 2014. “Autocratic Breakdown and Regime Transitions: A New Data Set.” Perspective in Politics 12(2): 313-331.
Gilley, Bruce. 2012. “Authoritarian Environmentalism and China’s Response to Climate Change.” Environmental Politics 21(2): 287-307.
Grimm, Nancy B, David Foster, Peter Groffman, J Morgan Grove, Charles S Hopkinson, Knute J. Nadelhoffer, Diane E. Pataki, and Debra P.C. Peters. 2008. “The Changing Landscape: Ecosystem Responses to Urbanization and Pollution Across Climatic and Societal Gradients.” Frontiers of Ecology and the Environment 6(5): 264-272.
Grossman, Gene M. and Alan B. Krueger. 1995. “Economic Growth and the Environment.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 110(2): 353–377.
Hadenius, Axel and Jan Teorell. 2006. “Authoritarian Regimes: Stability, Change, and Pathways to Democracy, 1972-2003.” Kellogg Insitute Working Paper Series 331. November. Available at http://kellogg.nd.edu/publications/workingpapers/WPS/331.pdf.
Hadenius, Axel, and Jan Teorell. 2007. "Pathways from Authoritarianism." Journal of Democracy 18(1): 143-157.
Hankla, Charles R., and Daniel Kuthy. 2013. "Economic Liberalism in Illiberal Regimes: Authoritarian Variation and the Political Economy of Trade.” International Studies Quarterly 57(3): 492–504.
Hausfather, Zeke. 2019. “Analysis: Global Fossil-Fuel Emissions up 0.6% in 2019 Due to China.” Carbon Brief, December 4. Available at https://www.carbonbrief.org/analysis-global-fossil-fuel-emissions-up-zero-point-six-per-cent-in-2019-due-to-china.
Heilbroner, Robert L. 1974. An Inquiry into the Human Prospect. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Ishiyama, John, Ryan Conway, and Katherine Haggans. 2008. "Is There a Monadic Authoritarian Peace: Authoritarian Regimes, Democratic Transition Types and the First Use of Violent Force." African Journal of Political Science and International Relations 2(3): 31-37.
Kailitz, Steffen, and Daniel Stockemer. 2017. "Regime Legitimation, Elite Cohesion, and the Durability of Autocratic Regime Types." International Political Science Review 38(3): 332-348.
Kirlin, John. 1996. “What Government Must Do Well: Creating Value for Society.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 6(1): 161-185.
Klick, Jonathan. 2002. “Autocrats and the Environment or It’s Easy Being Green.” George Mason Law and Economics Working Paper Series 02-16. May 13. http://ssrn.com/abstract_id= 311063.
Korsbakken, Jan Ivar, Robbie Andrew, and Glen Peters. 2019. “Guest Post: China’s CO2 Emissions Grew Slower than Expected in 2018.” Carbon Brief, March 5. Available at https://www.carbonbrief.org/guest-post-chinas-co2-emissions-grew-slower-than-expected-in-2018.
Kotchen, Matthew. 2014. “Public Goods.” In Environmental and natural resource economics an encyclopedia, eds. Tim Haab and John Whitehead. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 271-273.
Lektzian, David, and Mark Souva. 2009. “A Comparative Theory of Democratic Peace Arguments, 1946-2000.” Journal of Peace Research 46(1): 17-37.
Levitsky, Steven, and Lucan A. Way. 2002. “Elections Without Democracy: The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism.” Journal of Democracy 13(2): 51-65.
Lindsey, Rebecca. 2020. “Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide.” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, February 20. Available at https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide.
Martinez-Bravo, Monica, Gerard Padró i Miquel, Nancy Qian, and Yang Yao. 2012. "Elections in China." National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 18101. May. Available at https://www.nber.org/papers/w18101.pdf.
Nguyen, Thieu-Dang, and Simone Datzberger. 2018. “The Environmental Movement in Vietnam: A New Frontier of Civil Society Activism?” Transnational Institute: Challenging Authoritarianism Series 4. May. Available at https://www.tni.org/files/publication-downloads/tni-authoritarianism-vietnams-environmental-movement.pdf.
Peceny, Mark, and Christopher K. Butler. 2004. "The Conflict Behavior of Authoritarian Regimes." International Politics 41(4): 565-581.
Peceny, Mark, Caroline C. Beer, and Shannon Sanchez-Terry. 2002. "Dictatorial Peace?" The American Political Science Review 96(1): 15-26.
Peterson, E. Wesley F. 2000. “The Design of Supranational Organizations for the Provision of International Public Goods: Global Environmental Protection.” Review of Agricultural Economics 22(2): 355-369.
Reuter, Ora John, and Graeme B. Robertson. 2015. "Legislatures, Cooptation, and Social Protest in Contemporary Authoritarian Regimes." The Journal of Politics, 77:1 (January): 235-248.
Rosato, Sebastian. 2003. "The Flawed Logic of Democratic Peace Theory." The American Political Science Review 97(4): 585-602.
Rosenzweig, Steven C. 2015. “Does Electoral Competition Affect Public Goods Provision in Dominant-Party Regimes? Evidence from Tanzania.” Electoral Studies 39: 72-84.
Sah, Raaj K. 1991. “Fallibility in Human Organizations and Political Systems.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 5(2):67-88.
Song, Sha. 2018. “Here’s How China is Going Green.” World Economic Forum, April 26. Available at https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/04/china-is-going-green-here-s-how/.
Takeuchi, Hiroki. 2013. “Vote Buying, Village Elections, and Authoritarian Rule in Rural China: A Game-Theoretic Analysis.” Journal of East Asian Studies 13: 69-105.
Tsai, Lily L. 2007. “Solidary Groups, Informal Accountability, and Local Public Goods Provision in Rural China.” The American Political Science Review, 101(2): 355-372.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 2019. Emissions Gap Report 2019. http://www.unenvironment.org/emissionsgap.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2019. “Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data.” Available at https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2020. “What is the Kyoto Protocol.” Available at https://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol (Accessed April 15, 2020).
Wahman, Michael, Jan Teorell, and Axel Hadenius. 2013. “Authoritarian regime types revisited: updated data in comparative perspective.” Contemporary Politics 19 (1): 19-34.
Weede, Erich. 1996. “Political Regime Type and Variation in Economic Growth Rates.” Constitutional Political Economy 7: 167-176.
Weeks, Jessica L. 2008. “Autocratic Audience Costs: Regime Type and Signaling Resolve.” International Organization, 62(1): 35-64.
Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid and SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL FOR GOVERNMENT POLICY. 2007. “Rediscovering Europe in the Netherlands.” Amsterdam University Press: 119-136.
World Bank. 2019. World Bank Open Data | Data. Available at https://data.worldbank.org/
|Appears in Collections:||[國際研究英語碩士學位學程] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.