Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: Instagram上影片與相片之廣告效果比較研究
A Comparative Study of Advertising Effects of Videos and Photos on Instagram
Authors: 黃語陶
Huang, Yu-Tao
Contributors: 陳憶寧
Huang, Yu-Tao
Keywords: 社群媒體
social media
social advertising
advertising value
advertising effectiveness
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-08-03 18:46:08 (UTC+8)
Abstract:   隨著行動網路的發展,社群媒體已經是大眾日常生活的資訊來源,也日益成為企業在品牌傳播與廣告行銷中必不可少的一環。然而在資訊超載的注意力經濟時代,如何才能於一眾競爭者中脫穎而出,成功攫取閱聽人的注意力,亦是品牌所面臨的重要課題。而當下,視覺化是網路時代資訊表達的重要趨勢。隨著網路的普及,影像有逐漸取代文字成為主流敘事媒介的趨勢,人們開始更多地進行視覺化溝通,並透過影像感受周遭的世界。很快,企業和組織開始將目光落在社群媒體新貴Instagram上。

In recent years, social media has become an important advertising platform to reach consumers online. We currently live in an attention economy and attention is one of the most valuable resources nowadays. Thus, to marketers, how to stand out among the industry competitors and catch the attention of consumers successfully is definitely an issue to be reckoned with.

Among the social media platforms that are gaining the attention of marketers is Instagram. As a visual social media, Instagram has its unique advantages in terms of advertising. Just as an English adage says, "a picture is worth a thousand words." In order to benefit from the potentials of Instagram as an advertising channel, marketers should examine and understand what types and traits of Instagram Ads relate to a better advertising effect.

The aim of this study is to compare the advertising effects of video and photo ads on Instagram. The advertising effects are mainly measured with the attitude and intention of young Instagram users. The research will end by providing some tentative conclusions and a discussion of areas in need of additional research.
Reference: 參考文獻


Facebook for Business(2019年7月9日)。〈台灣行動世代的數位行銷趨勢〉。上網日期2020年3月21日,檢自:
Instagram for Business(2018年6月21日)。〈用戶如何看待及使用Instagram Stories和動態消息?〉。上網日期2020年5月17日,檢自:
林珉齊(2018年12月26日)。〈2019 年原生廣告五大趨勢揭秘!〉,《TenMax》。上網日期2019年11月2日,檢自:
沈錦惠(2014)。〈隱喻即視覺化的語藝行動: 網路時代談視覺語藝的古典根源〉,《中華傳播學刊》,26:63-106。
余怡慧(2018年3月)。〈Facebook 觀點:從最新數據,一窺 Instagram 2018年商機與趨勢〉,《Inside》。上網日期2019年10月24日,檢自:
鄭勝得(2018年3月24日)。〈臉書掰掰 Instagram成社群網站新寵〉,《工商時報》。上網日期2019年10月17日,檢自:


Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring brand equity across products and markets. California management review, 38(3).
Aghekyan-Simonian, M., Forsythe, S., Kwon, W. S., & Chattaraman, V. (2012). The role of product brand image and online store image on perceived risks and online purchase intentions for apparel. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 19(3), 325-331.
Agrawal, V. (2017, January). How to use video content to build a positive brand image. Startupgrind. Retrieved November 12, 2019, from:
Algesheimer, R., Dholakia, U. M., & Herrmann, A. (2005). The social influence of brand community: Evidence from European car clubs. Journal of marketing, 69(3), 19-34.
Alhabash, S., & Ma, M. (2017). A tale of four platforms: Motivations and uses of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat among college students?. Social Media+ Society, 3(1), 2056305117691544.
Alwitt, L. F., & Prabhaker, P. R. (1994). Identifying who dislikes television advertising: Not by demographics alone. Journal of Advertising Research, 34(6), 17-30.
Andrejevic, M. (2009). Exploiting YouTube: Contradictions of user-generated labor. The YouTube Reader, 413.
Ashley, C., & Tuten, T. (2015). Creative strategies in social media marketing: An exploratory study of branded social content and consumer engagement. Psychology & Marketing, 32(1), 15-27.
Atilgan, E., Aksoy, Ş., & Akinci, S. (2005). Determinants of the brand equity: A verification approach in the beverage industry in Turkey. Marketing intelligence & planning, 23(3), 237-248.
Azar, S. L., Machado, J. C., Vacas-de-Carvalho, L., & Mendes, A. (2016). Motivations to interact with brands on Facebook–Towards a typology of consumer–brand interactions. Journal of Brand Management, 23(2), 153-178.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6), 1173.
Barwise, P. (1993). Brand equity: snark or boojum?. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 10(1), 93-104.
Bashir, S., Rizwan, M. S., Salam, A., Fu, Q., Zhu, J., Shaaban, M., & Hu, H. (2018). Cadmium immobilization potential of rice straw-derived biochar, zeolite and rock phosphate: extraction techniques and adsorption mechanism. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 100(5), 727-732.
Berry, L. L. (2000). Cultivating service brand equity. Journal of the Academy of marketing Science, 28(1), 128-137.
Beukeboom, C. J., Kerkhof, P., & de Vries, M. (2015). Does a virtual like cause actual liking? How following a brand's Facebook updates enhances brand evaluations and purchase intention. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 32, 26-36.
Beverland, M. B., Lindgreen, A., & Vink, M. W. (2008). Projecting authenticity through advertising: Consumer judgments of advertisers' claims. Journal of Advertising, 37(1), 5-15.
Biel, A. L. (1993). Converting image into equity. Brand equity and advertising: Advertising’s role in building strong brands, 26(10), 67-81.
Bolton, R. N., & Lemon, K. N. (1999). A dynamic model of customers’ usage of services: Usage as an antecedent and consequence of satisfaction. Journal of marketing research, 36(2), 171-186.
Bowden, J. L. H. (2009). The process of customer engagement: A conceptual framework. Journal of marketing theory and practice, 17(1), 63-74.
Boyd, D. (2007). Why youth (heart) social network sites: The role of networked publics in teenage social life. MacArthur foundation series on digital learning–Youth, identity, and digital media volume, 119, 142.
Brackett, L. K., & Carr, B. N. (2001). Cyberspace advertising vs. other media: Consumer vs. mature student attitudes. Journal of advertising research, 41(5), 23-32.
Brodie, R. J., Hollebeek, L. D., Jurić, B., & Ilić, A. (2011). Customer engagement: Conceptual domain, fundamental propositions, and implications for research. Journal of service research, 14(3), 252-271.
Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B., & Hollebeek, L. (2013). Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis. Journal of business research, 66(1), 105-114.
Brooks, B. (2019, January). Instagram Stats and Trends to Guide Your 2019 Strategy. Business 2 Community. Retrieved May 21, 2020, from:
Bumgarner, B. A. (2007). You have been poked: Exploring the uses and gratifications of Facebook among emerging adults. First Monday, 12(11).
Cabiddu, F., De Carlo, M., & Piccoli, G. (2014). Social media affordances: Enabling customer engagement. Annals of Tourism Research, 48, 175-192.
Calder, B. J., Malthouse, E. C., & Schaedel, U. (2009). An experimental study of the relationship between online engagement and advertising effectiveness. Journal of interactive marketing, 23(4), 321-331.
Calisir, F., & Karaali, D. (2008). The impacts of banner location, banner content and navigation style on banner recognition. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(2), 535-543.
Carah, N., & Shaul, M. (2016). Brands and Instagram: Point, tap, swipe, glance. Mobile Media & Communication, 4(1), 69-84.
Casaló, L. V., Flavián, C., & Guinalíu, M. (2010). Determinants of the intention to participate in firm-hosted online travel communities and effects on consumer behavioral intentions. Tourism management, 31(6), 898-911.
Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty. Journal of marketing, 65(2), 81-93.
Chen, H. (2018). College-aged young consumers' perceptions of social media marketing: The story of Instagram. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 39(1), 22-36.
Chen, J. (2020, May). Important Instagram stats you need to know for 2020. SproutSocial. Retrieved April 11, 2020, from:
Chiou, J. S., & Cheng, C. (2003). Should a company have message boards on its web sites?. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 17(3), 50-61.
Choi, H., Ko, E., Kim, E. Y., & Mattila, P. (2015). The role of fashion brand authenticity in product management: A holistic marketing approach. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(2), 233-242.
Choi, S. M., & Rifon, N. J. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of web advertising credibility: A study of consumer response to banner ads. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 3(1), 12-24.
Cisco. (2020, March 9). Cisco annual internet report (2018–2023) white paper. Retrieved June 22, 2020, from:
Clement, J. (2020, April). Estimated annual Instagram revenue 2017-2019. Statistica. Retrieved June 12, 2020, from:
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Flow and education. NAMTA journal, 22(2), 2-35.
Daugherty, T., Eastin, M. S., & Bright, L. (2008). Exploring consumer motivations for creating user-generated content. Journal of interactive advertising, 8(2), 16-25.
De Vries, L., Gensler, S., & Leeflang, P. S. (2012). Popularity of brand posts on brand fan pages: An investigation of the effects of social media marketing. Journal of interactive marketing, 26(2), 83-91.
Decker, A. (2020, January). Images, GIFs or video: which perform best on Instagram?. HubSpot. Retrieved May 22, 2020, from:
Dijkmans, C., Kerkhof, P., & Beukeboom, C. J. (2015). A stage to engage: Social media use and corporate reputation. Tourism management, 47, 58-67.
Dolan, R., Conduit, J., Fahy, J., & Goodman, S. (2016). Social media engagement behaviour: A uses and gratifications perspective. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 24(3-4), 261-277.
Dopson, E. (2019). Videos vs. images: which drives more engagement in Facebook ads?. Databox. Retrieved January 23, 2020, from:
Drèze, X., & Hussherr, F. X. (2003). Internet advertising: Is anybody watching?. Journal of interactive marketing, 17(4), 8-23.
Ducoffe, R. H. (1996). Advertising value and advertising on the web-Blog@ management. Journal of advertising research, 36(5), 21-32.
Ducoffe, R. H., & Curlo, E. (2000). Advertising value and advertising processing. Journal of Marketing Communications, 6(4), 247-262.
Duval, E. (2011, February). Attention please! Learning analytics for visualization and recommendation. In Proceedings of the 1st international conference on learning analytics and knowledge (pp. 9-17).
Enginkaya, E., & Yılmaz, H. (2014). What drives consumers to interact with brands through social media? A motivation scale development study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, 219-226.
Evans, N. J., Phua, J., Lim, J., & Jun, H. (2017). Disclosing Instagram influencer advertising: The effects of disclosure language on advertising recognition, attitudes, and behavioral intent. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 17(2), 138-149.
Facebook. (2019, February). How Instagram boosts brands and drives sales. Retrieved March 23, 2020, from:
Fairbrother, P. (2019, December). Image vs. video vs. carousel: which is the best Facebook ad format? (a $1,000 experiment). Hootsuite. Retrieved April 12, 2020, from:
Farley, J. U., & Ring, L. W. (1970). An empirical test of the Howard-Sheth model of buyer behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 7(4), 427-438.
Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: exposure to corrective information. Psychological bulletin, 99(1), 20.
Foroudi, P., Jin, Z., Gupta, S., Foroudi, M. M., & Kitchen, P. J. (2018). Perceptional components of brand equity: Configuring the Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Paths to brand loyalty and brand purchase intention. Journal of Business Research, 89, 462-474.
Fuchs, C. (2015). Dallas Smythe Today–The audience commodity, the digital labour debate, Marxist political economy and critical theory. Prolegomena to a digital labour theory of value. In Marx and the Political Economy of the Media (pp. 522-599). Brill.
Gaber, H. R., Wright, L. T., & Kooli, K. (2019). Consumer attitudes towards Instagram advertisements in Egypt: The role of the conceived advertising value and personalization. Cogent Business & Management, (just-accepted), 1618431.
Gambetti, R. C., & Graffigna, G. (2010). The concept of engagement: a systematic analysis of the ongoing marketing debate. International Journal of Market Research, 52(6), 801-826.
Gilpin, D. (2010). Organizational image construction in a fragmented online media environment. Journal of Public Relations Research, 22(3), 265-287.
Gotter, A. (2019, August). The 30 Instagram statistics you need to know in 2018. AdEspresso. Retrieved December 22, 2019, from:
Gotter, A. (2019, April). How the Instagram algorithm works (and where your strategy needs to shift). Shopify. Retrieved May 12, 2020 from:
Gottfried, J., & Shearer, E. (2016). News Use Across Social Medial Platforms 2016. Pew Research Center. Retrieved May 12, 2019, from:
Greer, C. F., & Ferguson, D. A. (2017). The local TV station as an organizational self: Promoting corporate image via Instagram. International Journal on Media Management, 19(4), 282-297.
Groeger, L., Moroko, L., & Hollebeek, L. D. (2016). Capturing value from non-paying consumers’ engagement behaviours: field evidence and development of a theoretical model. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 24(3-4), 190-209.
Guilford, J. P. (1966). Intelligence: 1965 model. American Psychologist, 21(1), 20.
Gummerus, J., Liljander, V., Weman, E., & Pihlström, M. (2012). Customer engagement in a Facebook brand community. Management Research Review, 35(9), 857-877.
Ha, L. (1996). Advertising clutter in consumer magazines: Dimensions and effects. Journal of advertising research, 36(4), 76-85.
Haghirian, P., Madlberger, M., & Tanuskova, A. (2005, January). Increasing advertising value of mobile marketing-an empirical study of antecedents. In Proceedings of the 38th annual Hawaii international conference on system sciences(pp. 32c-32c). IEEE.
Ha, L. (1996). Advertising clutter in consumer magazines: Dimensions and effects. Journal of advertising research, 36(4), 76-85.
Hamari, J., Malik, A., Koski, J., & Johri, A. (2019). Uses and Gratifications of Pokémon Go: Why do People Play Mobile Location-Based Augmented Reality Games?. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 35(9), 804-819.
Harmeling, C. M., Moffett, J. W., Arnold, M. J., & Carlson, B. D. (2017). Toward a theory of customer engagement marketing. Journal of the Academy of marketing science, 45(3), 312-335.
Hatch, M. J., & Schultz, M. (2010). Toward a theory of brand co-creation with implications for brand governance. Journal of Brand Management, 17(8), 590-604.
Hennig-Thurau, T., Gwinner, K. P., Walsh, G., & Gremler, D. D. (2004). Electronic word-of-mouth via consumer-opinion platforms: what motivates consumers to articulate themselves on the internet?. Journal of interactive marketing, 18(1), 38-52.
Hermida, A., Fletcher, F., Korell, D., & Logan, D. (2012). Share, like, recommend: Decoding the social media news consumer. Journalism studies, 13(5-6), 815-824.
Higgins, E. T., & Scholer, A. A. (2009). Engaging the consumer: The science and art of the value creation process. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(2), 100-114.
Hoeffler, S., & Keller, K. L. (2002). Building brand equity through corporate societal marketing. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 21(1), 78-89.
Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (1996). Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: Conceptual foundations. Journal of marketing, 60(3), 50-68.
Hollebeek, L. D. (2011). Demystifying customer brand engagement: Exploring the loyalty nexus. Journal of marketing management, 27(7-8), 785-807.
Hollebeek, L. D., Glynn, M. S., & Brodie, R. J. (2014). Consumer brand engagement in social media: Conceptualization, scale development and validation. Journal of interactive marketing, 28(2), 149-165.
Holmqvist, J., & Lunardo, R. (2015). The impact of an exciting store environment on consumer pleasure and shopping intentions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 32(1), 117-119.
Howard, J. A., & Sheth, J. N. (2001). A Theory of Buyer Behavior. Marketing: Critical Perspectives on Business and Management, 3, 81.
Hsiao, J. (2018, May). Video or images: which performs better in Facebook ads?. HubSpot. Retrieved December 10, 2019, from:
Huang, H. H., & Mitchell, V. W. (2014). The role of imagination and brand personification in brand relationships. Psychology & Marketing, 31(1), 38-47.
Huang, Y. T., & Su, S. F. (2018). Motives for Instagram use and topics of interest among young adults. Future Internet, 10(8), 77.
Hudson, S., Huang, L., Roth, M. S., & Madden, T. J. (2016). The influence of social media interactions on consumer–brand relationships: A three-country study of brand perceptions and marketing behaviors. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 33(1), 27-41.
Iglesias, O., Markovic, S., Singh, J. J., & Sierra, V. (2019). Do customer perceptions of corporate services brand ethicality improve brand equity? Considering the roles of brand heritage, brand image, and recognition benefits. Journal of Business Ethics, 154(2), 441-459.
Ilich, K. L., & Hardey, M. (2018). ‘It’s all about the packaging’: investigation of the motivations, intentions, and marketing implications of sharing photographs of secondary packaging on Instagram. Information, Communication & Society, 1-19.
Instagram. (2017, August). Sight, Sound and Mobilization. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from:
Jaakkola, E., & Alexander, M. (2014). The role of customer engagement behavior in value co-creation: a service system perspective. Journal of service research, 17(3), 247-261.
Joa, C. Y., Kim, K., & Ha, L. (2018). What Makes People Watch Online In-Stream Video Advertisements?. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 18(1), 1-14.
Kane, L. (2019, June 30). The attention economy. Nielsen Norman Group. Retrieved November 17, 2019, from:
Kapferer, J. N. (1997). Managing luxury brands. Journal of brand management, 4(4), 251-259.
Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business horizons, 53(1), 59-68.
Karakaya, F., & Barnes, N. G. (2010). Impact of online reviews of customer care experience on brand or company selection. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 32(5), 32-41.
Karamian, H., Nadoushan, M. A., & Nadoushan, A. A. (2015). Do social media marketing activities increase brand equity. International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 4(3), 362-365.
Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1973). Uses and gratifications research. The public opinion quarterly, 37(4), 509-523.
Kayaman, R., & Arasli, H. (2007). Customer based brand equity: evidence from the hotel industry. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 17(1), 92-109.
Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of marketing, 57(1), 1-22.
Keller, K. L. (2003). Brand synthesis: The multidimensionality of brand knowledge. Journal of consumer research, 29(4), 595-600.
Kilambi, A., Laroche, M., & Richard, M. O. (2013). Constitutive marketing: Towards understanding brand community formation. International Journal of Advertising, 32(1), 45-64.
Kim, W. G., & Kim, H. B. (2004). Measuring customer-based restaurant brand equity. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 45(2), 115-131.
Koh, J., & Kim, Y. G. (2004). Knowledge sharing in virtual communities: an e-business perspective. Expert systems with applications, 26(2), 155-166.
Koll, O., & von Wallpach, S. (2014). Intended brand associations: Do they really drive consumer response?. Journal of Business Research, 67(7), 1501-1507.
Kotler, P. (2006). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications. London: Prentice-Hall International.
Kumar, A., Bezawada, R., Rishika, R., Janakiraman, R., & Kannan, P. K. (2016). From social to sale: The effects of firm-generated content in social media on customer behavior. Journal of Marketing, 80(1), 7-25.
Lafferty, B. A., & Goldsmith, R. E. (1999). Corporate credibility’s role in consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions when a high versus a low credibility endorser is used in the ad. Journal of business research, 44(2), 109-116.
Latiff, Z. A., & Safiee, N. A. S. (2015). New business set up for branding strategies on social media–Instagram. Procedia Computer Science, 72, 13-23.
Lavie, N. (2005). Distracted and confused?: Selective attention under load. Trends in cognitive sciences, 9(2), 75-82.
Lee, D., Hosanagar, K., & Nair, H. S. (2018). Advertising content and consumer engagement on social media: evidence from Facebook. Management Science, 64(11), 5105-5131.
Ling, K. C., Chai, L. T., & Piew, T. H. (2010). The effects of shopping orientations, online trust and prior online purchase experience toward customers' online purchase intention. International Business Research, 3(3), 63.
Lipsman, A., Mudd, G., Rich, M., & Bruich, S. (2012). The power of “like”: How brands reach (and influence) fans through social-media marketing. Journal of Advertising research, 52(1), 40-52.
Logan, K., Bright, L. F., & Gangadharbatla, H. (2012). Facebook versus television: advertising value perceptions among females. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 6(3), 164-179.
Luarn, P., Yang, J. C., & Chiu, Y. P. (2015). Why people check in to social network sites. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 19(4), 21-46.
MacKenzie, S. B., & Lutz, R. J. (1989). An empirical examination of the structural antecedents of attitude toward the ad in an advertising pretesting context. Journal of marketing, 53(2), 48-65.
Mander, J., & Beer, C. (2018). Entertainment: Global Web Index’s flagship report on the latest trends in online entertainment. Global Web Index. Retrieved May 16, 2020, from:
McSpadden, K. (2015). You now have a shorter attention span than a goldfish. Time. Retrieved June 1, 2020, from:
Meeker, M. (2018, June). Internet trends report 2018. Business Insider. Retrieved June 12, 2019, from:
Meeker, M. (2019, June). Internet trends report 2019. Kleiner Perkins. Retrieved July 19, 2019, from:
Mehta, A. (2000). Advertising attitudes and advertising effectiveness. Journal of advertising research, 40(3), 67-72.
Mirbagheri, S., & Najmi, M. (2019). Consumers' engagement with social media activation campaigns: Construct conceptualization and scale development. Psychology & Marketing, 36(4), 376-394.
Mitchell, A. A., & Olson, J. C. (1981). Are product attribute beliefs the only mediator of advertising effects on brand attitude?. Journal of marketing research, 18(3), 318-332.
Moliner, M. A., Sánchez, J., Rodríguez, R. M., & Callarisa, L. (2007). Conceived relationship quality and post-purchase conceived value: An integrative framework. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1392-1422.
Novak, T. P., Hoffman, D. L., & Yung, Y. F. (2000). Measuring the customer experience in online environments: A structural modeling approach. Marketing science, 19(1), 22-42.
Oakley, B. (2018). Learning how to learn: powerful mental tools to help you master tough subject, US: Tarcher.
Oliver, R. L., & DeSarbo, W. S. (1988). Response determinants in satisfaction judgments. Journal of consumer research, 14(4), 495-507.
O’neill, M. (2018, October). 2018 State of social video: consumer trends. Animoto. Retrieved May 19, 2020, from:
Palmatier, R. W., Jarvis, C. B., Bechkoff, J. R., & Kardes, F. R. (2009). The role of customer gratitude in relationship marketing. Journal of marketing, 73(5), 1-18.
Pansari, A., & Kumar, V. (2017). Customer engagement: the construct, antecedents, and consequences. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(3), 294-311.
Pappu, R., & Christodoulides, G. (2017). Defining, measuring and managing brand equity. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 26(5), 433-434.
Pappu, R., Quester, P. G., & Cooksey, R. W. (2005). Consumer-based brand equity: improving the measurement–empirical evidence. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 14(3), 143-154.
Pentina, I., Guilloux, V., & Micu, A. C. (2018). Exploring social media engagement behaviors in the context of luxury brands. Journal of Advertising, 47(1), 55-69.
Phua, J., Jin, S. V., & Kim, J. J. (2017). Gratifications of using Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or Snapchat to follow brands: The moderating effect of social comparison, trust, tie strength, and network homophily on brand identification, brand engagement, brand commitment, and membership intention. Telematics and Informatics, 34(1), 412-424.
Pollay, R. W., & Mittal, B. (1993). Here's the beef: factors, determinants, and segments in consumer criticism of advertising. Journal of marketing, 57(3), 99-114.
Rainie, L., Brenner, J., & Purcell, K. (2012). Photos and videos as social currency online. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved March 12, 2020, from:
René, C. (2019, February). Video content gets the most engagement on Instagram. Mention. Retrieved May 22, 2020, from:
Romney, M., & Johnson, R. G. (2018). Show me a story: narrative, image, and audience engagement on sports network Instagram accounts. Information, Communication & Society, 1-16.
Rosengren, S., & Dahlén, M. (2015). Exploring advertising Equity: How a Brand's past advertising may affect consumer willingness to approach its future ads. Journal of Advertising, 44(1), 1-13.
Ruggiero, T. E. (2000). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass communication & society, 3(1), 3-37.
Saadeghvaziri, F., & Hosseini, H. K. (2011). Mobile advertising: An investigation of factors creating positive attitude in Iranian customers. African journal of business management, 5(2), 394-404.
Samet, A. (2020, February). Analyzing Instagram user growth and usage patterns in 2020. Business Insider. Retrieved December 12, 2019, from:
Schau, H. J., Muñiz Jr, A. M., & Arnould, E. J. (2009). How brand community practices create value. Journal of marketing, 73(5), 30-51.
Schivinski, B., Christodoulides, G., & Dabrowski, D. (2016). Measuring consumers' engagement with brand-related social-media content: Development and validation of a scale that identifies levels of social-media engagement with brands. Journal of Advertising Research, 56(1), 64-80.
Schreiner, M., Fischer, T., & Riedl, R. (2019). Impact of content characteristics and emotion on behavioral engagement in social media: literature review and research agenda. Electronic Commerce Research, 1-17.
Scott, J., & Craig-Lees, M. (2010). Audience engagement and its effects on product placement recognition. Journal of Promotion Management, 16(1-2), 39-58.
Shao, G. (2009). Understanding the appeal of user-generated media: a uses and gratification perspective. Internet research, 19(1), 7-25.
Sheldon, P., & Bryant, K. (2016). Instagram: Motives for its use and relationship to narcissism and contextual age. Computers in human Behavior, 58, 89-97.
Shimp, T. A. (1981). Attitude toward the ad as a mediator of consumer brand choice. Journal of advertising, 10(2), 9-48.
Sigurdsson, V., Menon, R. V., Hallgrímsson, A. G., Larsen, N. M., & Fagerstrøm, A. (2018). Factors affecting attitudes and behavioral intentions toward in-app mobile advertisements. Journal of Promotion Management, 24(5), 694-714.
Silva, T. H., De Melo, P. O. V., Almeida, J. M., Salles, J., & Loureiro, A. A. (2013, May). A picture of Instagram is worth more than a thousand words: Workload characterization and application. In 2013 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (pp. 123-132). IEEE.
Silverman, G. (1997). How to harness the awesome power of word of mouth. DIRECT MARKETING-GARDEN CITY-, 60, 32-37.
So, K. K. F., King, C., Sparks, B. A., & Wang, Y. (2016). The role of customer engagement in building consumer loyalty to tourism brands. Journal of Travel Research, 55(1), 64-78.
Speck, P. S., & Elliott, M. T. (1997). Predictors of advertising avoidance in print and broadcast media. Journal of Advertising, 26(3), 61-76.
Sprott, D., Czellar, S., & Spangenberg, E. (2009). The importance of a general measure of brand engagement on market behavior: Development and validation of a scale. Journal of Marketing Research, 46(1), 92-104.
Stephen, A. T., & Galak, J. (2012). The effects of traditional and social earned media on sales: A study of a microlending marketplace. Journal of marketing research, 49(5), 624-639.
Stern, B., & Zaichowsky, J. L. (1991). The impact of entertaining advertising on consumer responses. Australian Marketing Researcher, 14(1), 68-80.
Tafesse, W. (2015). Content strategies and audience response on Facebook brand pages. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 69(2), 33-51.
Thaler, R. (1985). Mental accounting and consumer choice. Marketing science, 4(3), 199-214.
Tsang, M. M., Ho, S. C., & Liang, T. P. (2004). Consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising: An empirical study. International journal of electronic commerce, 8(3), 65-78.
Van-Tien Dao, W., Nhat Hanh Le, A., Ming-Sung Cheng, J., & Chao Chen, D. (2014). Social media advertising value: The case of transitional economies in Southeast Asia. International Journal of Advertising, 33(2), 271-294.
Van Doorn, J., Lemon, K. N., Mittal, V., Nass, S., Pick, D., Pirner, P., & Verhoef, P. C. (2010). Customer engagement behavior: Theoretical foundations and research directions. Journal of service research, 13(3), 253-266.
Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004). The four service marketing myths: remnants of a goods-based, manufacturing model. Journal of service research, 6(4), 324-335.
Verhagen, T., & van Dolen, W. (2011). The influence of online store beliefs on consumer online impulse buying: A model and empirical application. Information & Management, 48(8), 320-327.
Vivek, S. D., Beatty, S. E., & Morgan, R. M. (2012). Customer engagement: Exploring customer relationships beyond purchase. Journal of marketing theory and practice, 20(2), 122-146.
Vivek, S. D., Beatty, S. E., Dalela, V., & Morgan, R. M. (2014). A generalized multidimensional scale for measuring customer engagement. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 22(4), 401-420.
Voorveld, H. A., van Noort, G., Muntinga, D. G., & Bronner, F. (2018). Engagement with social media and social media advertising: The differentiating role of platform type. Journal of Advertising, 47(1), 38-54.
Weinberg, B. D., de Ruyter, K., Dellarocas, C., Buck, M., & Keeling, D. I. (2013). Destination social business: Exploring an organization's journey with social media, collaborative community and expressive individuality. Journal of interactive marketing, 27(4), 299-310.
Whitney, M. (2020, March). The complete guide to advertising on Instagram. WorldStream. Retrieved May 16, 2020, from:
Winchel, B. (2015, March). Report: Brands’ posts to Instagram outnumber those to Facebook. PR Daily. Retrieved July 28, 2019, from:
Wojdynski, B. W. (2016). The deceptiveness of sponsored news articles: How readers recognize and perceive native advertising. American Behavioral Scientist, 60(12), 1475-1491.
Xinhui, C., & Han, D. (2016). A meta-analysis of consumer irrational purchase behavior based on Howard-Sheth mode. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research, 10(3).
Yang, T. (2012). The decision behavior of Facebook users. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 52(3), 50-59.
Yılmaz, H., & Enginkaya, E. (2015). Brand followers: motivations and attitudes of consumers to follow brands in social media. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, 9(1), 3-20.
Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of business research, 52(1), 1-14.
Yoo, B., Donthu, N., & Lee, S. (2000). An examination of selected marketing mix elements and brand equity. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 28(2), 195-211.
Yousif, R. O. (2012). The extent of Facebook users' interest in the advertising messages. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(3), 122.
Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of marketing, 52(3), 2-22.
Zhao, X., Yang, J., Xie, T., & Wang, Z. (2017). Examining advertising intrusiveness on Instagram: Hedonic and utilitarian attributes of brand and sponsored content. In American Academy of Advertising. Conference. Proceedings (Online) (p. 243). American Academy of Advertising.
Zulli, D. (2018). Capitalizing on the look: insights into the glance, attention economy, and Instagram. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 35(2), 137-150.
Description: 碩士
Source URI:
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[傳播學院傳播碩士學位學程] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
403801.pdf2270KbAdobe PDF856View/Open

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing