Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/131590


Title: 電車難題的哲學探究
A Philosophical Exploration of the Trolley Problem
Authors: 賀龍
He, Long
Contributors: 鄭光明
zheng,Guang-Ming
賀龍
He,Long
Keywords: 電車難題
義務論
雙重效應原則
自動化駕駛
The trolley problem
Deontology
Doctrine of double effect
Unmanned autopilot
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-09-02 12:04:19 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 電車難題作為一個經典的思想實驗一直被許多專家學者所研究討論,其中效益論和義務論兩個理論的衝突成為電車難題的核心問題,電車難題提出至今未有一個公認合理的答案。而Francis Myrna Kamm、Judith Jarvis Thomson,又是研究電車難題的知名學者,他們對電車難題的發展起到至關重要的作用。
首先,本文從電車難題的產生及發展開始,會將Thomson兩篇以及Kamm一篇代表性的文章進行介紹,並且本文隨後對其中一些觀點提出不同看法進行討論,並認為按照Thomson及Kamm的思路不能提供令人滿意的答案,因為電車難題的道德抉擇是有許多因素影響的。
其次,本文先解析雙重效應原則,隨後對Thomson提出電車難題的一些問題進行討論,進一步分析雙重效應原則是否有助於解決電車難題,雙重效應原則的不足之處為何,並期望雙重效應原則隨著科學技術的發展,理論可以進一步的得到完善,進而促進電車難題的解決。
最後文章以電車難題為基礎,對未來自動化化自動駕駛技術的理論基礎進行討論,希望通過電車難題可以為自動化化自動駕駛技術提供一定的參考價值。本文期望綜合多方面的理論可以讓電車難題在一定程度上得到解釋,期望對以後繼續研究電車難題有所助益。
As a classical thought experiment, the trolley problem has been studied and discussed by numerous experts and scholars. Coming up in the conflict between utilitarian theory and deontology, the problem has not yet been answered with a universally accepted sound solution until now. Nevertheless, Francis Myrna Kamm, Judith Jarvis Thomson, the well-known researchers working on the trolley problem, have devoted essential contribution on its growth.
At the beginning, two of Thomson's and one of Kamm's representative articles are introduced in this paper from the origin to the progress of the trolley problem, followed by some distinct opinions and discussions on their certain viewpoints. Hereinto, it is considered that the ideas of Thomson and Kamm could not offer satisfying solutions, since the ethnical choice of trolley problem is affected by many various factors. Thereafter, the doctrine of double effect is interpreted firstly. After that, some issues of Thomas putting forward the trolley problem are discussed, with additional analysis on the drawbacks of the doctrine of double effect and whether it helps with the solution being carried out. Meanwhile, with the staggering steps of the science and technology, the doctrine of double effect theory is expected to be further improved to promote the solution of the trolley problem. Ultimately, based on the trolley problem, the theoretical foundation of future unmanned autopilot technique is discussed in this paper, hoping for providing some referential significance for its advance through the trolley problem. In this paper, it is projected to explain the trolley problem to some extent via comprehensive theories, as well as benefiting its subsequent study.
Reference: 中文文獻
陳翠翠(2012)。《雙重效應原則研究》。湖南:湘潭大學碩士論文。
郭蓉、李倫(2014)。〈雙重效應原則及其評析〉,《中南林業科技大學學報(社會科學版)》8(4): 60-63。
林芳芳(2010)。《情感捲入對道德判斷的影響》。廣西:廣西師範大學發展與教育心理學碩士論文。
劉明娟、廖鳳林(2013)。〈電車難題:情境人數對道德判斷與惻隱之心的影響〉,《首都師範大學學報(自然科學版)》34(2): 82-88。
孫保學(2018)。〈自動駕駛汽車的倫理困境——危急時刻到底該救誰〉,《道德與文明》4: 34-39。
餘露(2019)。〈自動駕駛汽車的羅爾斯式演算法——“最大化最小值”原則能否作為“電車難題”的道德決策原則〉,《哲學動態》10: 100-107。
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英文文獻
Huebner, B., & Hauser, M. D. (2011). Moral Judgments about Altruistic Self-sacrifice: When Philosophical and Folk Intuitions Clash. Philosophical Psychology, 24(1): 73-94..
Cathcart, T. (2013). The Trolley Problem, or Would You Throw the Fat Guy Off the Bridge?: A Philosophical Conundrum.New York: Workman Publishing Company.
Cavanaugh,T. A. (2006). Doing Good and Avioding Evil. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Foot, P. (1967). The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of the Double Effect. In Virtues and Vices. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1978. Originally appeared in the Oxford Review, 5, 1967.
Kamm, F. M. (2015). The Trolley Problem Mysteries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Knight, W. (2013). Driverless Cars are Further Away than You Think. MIT Technology Review. Retrieved from http:// www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/520431/driverless-cars-are-further-away-than-you-think/
Smart, J. J. C. (1973). An Outline of a System of Utilitarian Ethics. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
Thomson, J. J.. (1985). The Trolley Problem. Yale Law Journal, 94: 1395–1415.
Thomson, J. J. (2008). Turning the Trolley. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 36(4): 359-374.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
哲學系
107154013
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107154013
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[哲學系] 學位論文

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