Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: 從經貿外交角度探討臺灣與斯洛伐克的雙邊關係(1993-2003年)
A Study of Taiwan-Slovakia Relations (1993-2003) from the Perspective of Economic Diplomacy
Authors: 雷悅
Eunika, Rejtova
Contributors: 魏玫娟
Wei, Mei-Chuan
Rejtova Eunika
Keywords: 斯洛伐克
Central Europe
substantial relations
economic diplomacy
representative offices
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-09-02 12:32:25 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文旨在從經貿外交的角度探討臺灣在斯洛伐克設立代表處之前的兩國關係,特別著重於討論斯洛伐克作為中歐最後一個與臺灣建立實質關係國家的原因為何。由於斯洛伐克與中國的官方關係,以及斯洛伐克對「一個中國」政策的堅持,與臺灣建立任何關係都僅止於非正式層面。臺灣採取所謂「非正式外交」方式與中國的盟友建立實質關係,而經貿外交則是臺灣於1990年代與中歐和東歐採取的非正式外交手段之一。為確認臺灣辦事處延遲設立之因,本文的分析框架為先評估1990年代臺灣經貿外交對斯洛伐克的影響程度,然後探討是否因此導致雙方之間出現「不對稱互賴性關係」。本研究結果顯示,儘管臺灣自1990年代以來持續努力與所有中歐國家建立關係,但其與斯洛伐克的經貿外交似乎直到2000年代初才因為該國的國內政治變化而出現成效。據此,本研究認為斯洛伐克國內政治為臺灣代表處延遲設立的主要因素;1990年代斯洛伐克政府的兩個領導者對經濟發展採取不同的方針:Meciar的「經濟服務政治」和Dzurinda 的「政治服務經濟」,不同了方針因此決定了該國的外交政策、經濟改革及其對臺灣經貿外交的立場。本論文從經貿外交角度出發,以臺灣代表處延遲設立為例探討1993-2003臺灣與斯洛伐克外交關係所進行之研究的結果顯示,國內政治為影響臺灣經貿外交成效的重要因素,但在國際現實條件下,透過加強經貿關係仍為臺灣與他國建立實質性關係的重要雙邊關係模式。
This thesis seeks to provide an account of the relations between Taiwan and Slovakia before the opening of the representative offices with a special emphasis on the reasons that made Slovakia being one of the last countries in Central Europe to institutionalize its substantial relations with Taiwan. Given Slovakia‟s official relations with China and the „one China‟ policy to which Slovakia adheres, any relations with Taiwan are possible exclusively on the informal level. Taiwan establishes this kind of relationship with China‟s diplomatic allies through the so-called „informal‟ diplomacy. One tool of the informal diplomacy that had been adopted by Taiwan on Central and Eastern Europe in the 1990s is the economic diplomacy. In order to identify the reasons behind the delay of the opening of the mutual offices, the analytical framework of the thesis aimed first to evaluate the degree of influence of Taiwan‟s economic diplomacy on Slovakia in the 1990s and then find out whether this resulted in an asymmetrical dependent relationship with Slovakia. The research revealed that although Taiwan had made efforts since the 1990s to establish relationship with all Central European countries, its economic diplomacy with Slovakia did not appear to be effective primarily due to the country's domestic politics until the time of early 2000s. The domestic politics were thus identified as the most influential factor for explaining the delay of the opening of the representative offices. The different approaches of the two administrations that led Slovakia in the 1990s – „economy serving politics‟ under Mečiar‟s government and „politics serving economy‟ under Dzurinda‟s administration - determined the country‟s foreign policy, economic reforms and its attitude towards Taiwan‟s economic diplomacy. This thesis suggests a model of the bilateral relations that could help to understand the possible patterns of Taiwan‟s substantial relations with other countries built through the economic diplomacy.
Reference: Books
Alexander, C. R. (2014). China and Taiwan in Central America: Engaging Foreign Public in Diplomacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Baine, N. and Wookock, S. (2003). The New Economic Diplomacy: Decision-Making and Negotiation in International Economic Relations (Global Finance). Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Baldwin, D. A. (1985). Economic Statecraft. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Berridge, G., James A., Lloyd L. (2012). The Palgrave Macmillan Dictionary of Diplomacy. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Elster, J., Offe, C. and Preuss, U. K. (1998). Institutional Design in Post-Communist Societies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fürst, R. Bakesova, I. and Hermanova, Z. (2004). Hisory of Taiwan (Dějiny Taiwanu). Prague: Nakladatelstvi Lidove noviny.
Fürst, R. (2010), The Czech-China Relations after 1989. Prague: Karolinum.
Gao Lang (1994). Zhonghua Mingguo waijiao guanxi zhi yanban, 1972-1992 [An Evolution of Foreign Relations of the Republic of China, 1972-1992]. Taipei: Wunan Tushu Chuban.
Goldman, M. F. (1999). Slovakia since Independence: A Struggle for Democracy. London: Praeger Publishers.
Holsti, K.J. (1995). International Politics: a Framework for Analysis. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Keohane, R. O., & Nye, J. S. (1977). Power and interdependence: World politics in transition. Boston: Little, Brown.
Linz, J. and Stepan, A. (1996). Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Nye, J. S. Jr. (2005). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.
Rawnsley, G. D. (2010). Taiwan's Informal Diplomacy and Propaganda. London: Macmillan Press LTD.
Rosenberg, S. Emily (1999). Financial Missionaries to the World, The Politics and Culture of Dollar Diplomacy. London: Harvard University Press.
Tubilewicz, C. (2007). Taiwan and Post-Communist Europe: Shopping for Allies. New York: Routledge.
van Vranken Hickey, D. (2007). Foreign Policy Making in Taiwan: From Principle to Pragmatism. London and New York: Routledge.
Wang, Y. S. (1990). Foreign Policy of the Republic of China on Taiwan: An Unorthodox Approach. New York: Praeger.
Wong, T. (1999). The Political Economy of Taiwan's Foreign Policy. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies.

Journal articles
Arel-Bundock, V. and Atkinson, J. and Potter, R. A. (2015). The Limits of Foreign Aid Diplomacy: How Bureaucratic Design Shapes Aid Distribution. Retrieved January, 2019 from < >.
Batora, J. (2005). Public diplomacy in small and medium-sized states: Norway and Canada. Netherlands Institute of International Relations' Clingendael'. Retrieved January, 2019 from <>
Blanchard, F. and Ripsman, N. M. (2008). A Political Theory of Economic Statecraft, Foreign Policy Analysis, vol. 4, no. 4, 2008, pp. 374-398. Retrieved January 2019, from <>.
Bowen, G. (2009). (PDF) Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method. Retrieved April, 2019 from <>.
Brooks, R. (2002). Sanctions and Regime Type: What Works, and When? Security Studies 11(4), 1-50.
Caporaso, James A. (1978). Dependence, Dependency, and Power in the Global System: a Structural and Behavioral Analysis, International Organization, 32, 1–2, Winter–Spring, 13–43.
Daborowski, T. (2009). Slovakia’s Economic Success and the Global Crisis in Centre for Eastern Studies, Issue 19. Retrieved November, 2019 from <>.
Dickey, L. (2018). Taiwan's Small-power Diplomacy. The interpreter. Retrieved January, 2019 from <>.
Duleba, A. (1997). Democratic Consolidation and the Conflict over Slovak International Alignement in Slovakia: Problems of Democratic Consolidation and the Struggle over the Rules of the Game, Bratislava: Slovak Political Science Association and Friedrich Ebert Foundation, 209-230.
Duleba, A. and Lukac, P. and Wlachovsky, M. (1998). ‘Zahraničná politika Slovenskej republiky východiská, stav a perspektívy’ [Foreign politics of the Slovak Republic: Background, Status and Perspectives]. Retrieved Sept, 2019 from <>.
Fürst, R. and Pleschova, G. (2010). Czech and Slovak Relations with China: Contenders for China's Favour. Europe-Asia Studies. Glasgow: University of Glasgow, 1363-1381. Retrieved October, 2018 from <>.
Goldstein, S. M. (2008). Soft Power as a Foreign Policy Tool for Taiwan. In Tsang, S. (Eds.), Taiwan and the International Community. Bern: International Academic Publishers.
Gregušová, G. (2003). Slovak-Chinese Relations. Report on the State of Society, Bratislava: Institute for Public Issues, 303-306.
Gregušová, G. (2005). Relations of Visegrad Four Countries with China. Czech Journal of International Relations 1-2005. Prague: Institute of International Relations. Retrieved November, 2019 from <>.
Javorcik B. S., B. Kaminski, (2004). The &quot;EU Factor&quot; and Slovakia's Globalization: The Role of Foreign Direct Investment. Retrieved September, 2019 from <'s_Globalization_The_Role_of_Foreign_Direct_Investment>.
Labuschagne, A. (2003). Qualitative research: Airy fairy or fundamental? The Qualitative Report, 8 (1), Article 7. Retrieved April, 2019 from <>.
Larus, E. F. (2006). Taiwan's quest for international recognition. Issues & Studies, 42(2), 23-52.
Lee, D. and Hocking, B. (2010). Economic Diplomacy. In Robert A. Denemark (Eds.), The International Studies Encyclopedia, Vol. II, 1216-1227. Wiley Blackwell.
Lektzian, D. and Souva, M. (2007). An Institutional Theory of Sanction Onset and Success. Journal of Conflict Resolution 51(6), 848-71.
Marcincin A., Beblavy, M. (2000).Economic Policy in Slovakia 1990-1999. Retrieved August, 2019 from <>.
Mengin, F. (1998). The Foreign Policy of the ROC on Taiwan since 1971: An Overview. The Republic of China on Taiwan in International Politics. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang D. Retrieved May 4, 2019 from <>.
Okano-Heijmans, M. (2011). Conceptualizing Economic Diplomacy: The Crossroads of International Relations, Economics, IPE and Diplomatic Studies. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, January 2011. Retrieved on January, 2019 from <>.
Okano-Heijimans M., Wit S., van der Putten F. P., (2015). Cross-Strait Relations and Diplomacy in East Asia: Towards Greater EU-Taiwan cooperation? Retrieved October 2019 from
Pleschová, G. (2013). The Slovak and Hungarian Partnerships with China: High Hopes that Did Not Come True. China's Comeback in Former Eastern Europe: No Longer Comrades, Not yet Strategic Partners. Prague: Institute of International Relations, 45-49.
Pridam, G. (2001). Uneasy Democratisations – Pariah Regimes, Political Conditionality and Reborn Transitions in Central and Eastern Europe. Democratisation, vol. 8, 2001, no. 4, 65–94.
Rejtová, E. (2019). Slovak-Taiwanese Relations under the One China Policy, Studia Orientalia Slovaca, vol. 1, 2019, ISSN 1336-3786,
Saner, R. and Yiu, L. (2003). International Economic Diplomacy: Mutations in Postmodern Times. Discussion Papers in Diplomacy, 84 (1). The Hague: Clingendael (Netherlands Institute of International Relations). Retrieved January, 2019 from <
Straková, A. (2017) Taiwan’s Cultural Diplomacy Practice: The Case in Slovakia (Master thesis, School of Culture Resources, Taipei National University of the Arts).
Su, Hungdah (2010). The EU’s Taiwan Policy in a New Context. Issues & Studies 46 (1), 1-53.
Szczudlik –Tatar J. (2013). The Unexploited Potential of Poland’s Cooperation with Taiwan. Retrieved January, 2019 from <>.
Szomolányi, S. (2003). Slovakia: From a Difficult Case of Transition to a Consolidated Central European Democracy. Retrieved, September 2019 from <>.
Taylor, I. (2002). Taiwan's Foreign Policy and Africa: The limitations of dollar diplomacy. Journal of Contemporary China, 11:30, 125-140, DOI: 10.1080/10670560120091174
Tubilewicz, C. (1999). Comrades No More: Sino-Central European Relations after the Cold War, Problems of Post-Communism, 46, 2, March/April 1999, pp. 3–14.
Tubilewicz, C. (2000). Promising Eldorado: Taiwan's diplomatic offensive in East Central Europe, 1989-1999. East Asia, 18(1), 34-60.
Tubilewicz, C. (2001) Taiwan's Balkan option: A new chapter in Republic of China ‘dollar diplomacy’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 12:1, 161-184, DOI: 10.1080/09592290108406194
Tubilewicz, C. (2005).The Scrooge Effect: Taiwan’s Economic Diplomacy Toward Central Europe, 1988-2005.Issues & Studies, 41(4), 209-249.
Tubilewicz, C. (2004). Breaking the ice: The origins of Taiwan's economic diplomacy towards the Soviet Union and its European allies. Europe Asia Studies, 56(6), 891-906.
van Bergeijk, P. A.G. and Moons, S. (2009). Economic Diplomacy and Economic Security. New Frontiers for Economic Diplomacy, 37-54. Retrieved January, 2019 from <>.
Winkler, S. (2007). EU-Taiwan Relations in the WTO: The Question of International Status. Retrieved September 2019 from <>.
Woo, B. and Verdier, D. (2013). Sanctions, Rewards and Regime Types. Unpub. Retrieved May, 2019 from: <>.

Government and Organizations’ documents
Bertelsmann Transformation Index (2003). Slovakia. Retrieved October 2019 from <>.
The Basis for One China, de Facto and de Jure. Retrieved September, 2018 from <>.
Directorate General of Customs, Ministry of Finance, ROC. Statistics Database Query: Yearly Comparison of ROC Imports and Exports by Continent (Area), Visegrad 4. Retrieved August, 2019 from <;APGAJSESSIONID=nT9Dp4NST0b41NbfSvy0zJ0RV4q51gmPwnJt9bvmm9dQPpQGf0Xk!-626283149>.
European Commission (1997), Agenda 2000 - Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Retrieved September, 2019 from <>.
European Parliament (2000). Briefing No 13
Slovakia and the enlargement of the European Union. Retrieved November, 2019 from <>.
Freedomhouse (2003). Reports, Czech Republic. Retrieved August, 2019 from <>.
Government Office of the Slovak Republic (2001) Report on the Preparedness of the Slovak Republic for the EU Membership. Retrieved November, 2019 from < › download>.
Institute for Policy Studies (2016). What Europe Can Teach Us bout Trump. Retrieved October, 2019 from <>.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan) (2003). 我國設立駐斯洛伐克代表處記者會紀要 . Obtained during Interview in August, 2019.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan) (2003). The ROC signed the “Replenishment Agreement for the EBRD-Taipei China Technical Cooperation Fund” and... Retrieved September, 2018 from <>.
MOFA Slovakia, Economic Information about Territory, Taiwan (2016).
Retrieved September, 2018 from
National Bank of Slovakia, NBS (1995). Annual Report 1995. Retrieved August, 2019 from <>.
Office of the President, Republic of China (Taiwan) (20015). President Ma meets
delegation led by Slovakian Member of European Parliament Eduard Kukan.
Retrieved November, 2019 from <>.
Taiwan Affairs Office and the Information Office of the State Council. The One-China Principle and the Taiwan Issue. Retrieved July, 2019 from <>
Taiwan's Foreign Aid Policy White Paper (2010). Retrieved September, 2018 from <>
Taipei Represenative Office in Hungary, <>.
The Official Website of Republic of China: Economy. Retrieved September, 2018 from <>.
The Treaty of Lisbon (2009). Retrieved November 2019 from <>.

Media reports
The Diplomat (2016). International Civil Aviation Organization Shuts out Taiwan. Retrieved September, 2019 from <>.
Focus Taiwan, (2018). EU supports Taiwan's participation in WHO. Retrieved September, 2019 from <>.
Taiwan Today (1992). Testing Free-Market Waters. Retrieved September, 2018 from <,29,32,45&post=13094>.
Taiwan Today (2011). Paying tribute to Vaclav Havel. Retrieved October, 2018 from <,23,45&post=2126>.
The Slovak Spectator (2019). Is Slovakia a Mafia State? Retrieved October, 2019 from <>
Trend (1998). V obchode s Taiwanom je Slovensko nadalej pasivne, [Slovakia continues to be passive in Trade with Taiwan]. Retrieved March, 2019 from <>.
Description: 碩士
Source URI:
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[國家發展研究所] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
102201.pdf1894KbAdobe PDF46View/Open

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing