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Title: 從性別出發:柬埔寨的土地抗爭與女性權益
Land Struggles and Women’s Rights in Cambodia: The Perspective of Gender and Development
Authors: 莊釗瀅
Zhuang, Zhao-Ying
Contributors: 魏玫娟
Wei, Mei-Chuan
Zhuang, Zhao-Ying
Keywords: 性別與發展
gender and development
gender equality
land struggle
women's rights
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-09-02 12:32:48 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在柬埔寨,女性問題和土地問題密切關聯,長期持續的土地衝突成為了柬埔寨女性轉變受害者身份、積極投入社會的契機。本研究從「性別與發展」的視角出發,採用文獻分析的方法,探討2001年柬埔寨《土地法》發佈後當地女性成為抗爭主力的緣由,瞭解她們所進行的土地抗爭活動與柬埔寨女性權益之間的關聯性。本論文研究聚焦探討柬埔寨土地抗爭中女性走向抗爭前沿的動力,以及她們所經歷的轉變。研究結果發現,將女性推向抗爭前沿的動力主要有:經濟影響、鄉村地區社會文化(尤其是女性地位)的轉變、土地開發對家庭的影響、政府部門和資本勢力的暴力、土地衝突所致之精神影響、資本與非政府組織的促成,以及男性的策略。女性由受害者至能動者意識的轉變,顯現在從恐慌到質疑發展的不平等、尋求自我權益的實現、並強調自身也能夠勇敢而強大;意識的轉變也促使她們大量投入行動,如參與街頭抗爭、學習相關知識和法規、形成抵抗組織、積極爭取政治權力、反抗丈夫的不合理要求、觸發地緣政治議題激起國際各界對柬埔寨土地問題的關注等。柬埔寨案例研究顯示,土地抗爭與女性權益的相關性主要在於:突破傳統女性形象、改變傳統家庭關係、對下一代產生示範性作用、通過抗爭活動獲取知識、維護女性的經濟權益,而這些皆有利於消除性別歧視與針對女性的暴力,改善家務性別分工不均情況,提高女性參與社會、經濟與政治的機會跟資源,促進女性賦權。本研究認為,土地抗爭觸發了「沿途賦權」(empowerment along the way)的過程,但對柬埔寨女性權益的促進仍有局限,「性別主流化」之落實將有助於柬埔寨性別平等,也使女性在國家發展中發揮更積極作用。
Women’s issues are closely linked to land in Cambodia. The prolonged land conflicts have provided women in Cambodia opportunities to change their victim consciousness and to actively engage in society. From the perspective of gender and development, this thesis aims to look into the reasons of women’s initiation of and participation in land struggles after the Land Law was introduced in 2001 with a view to understanding the link between land struggles and women’s rights through this case study. It is found that main driving forces that have pushed women to the front line of the land struggles include: the impact of the implementation of Land Law on economy and family relationship; the change of social culture in rural area, specifically the enhancing status of women; violence of government and capitalists; psychological impact of land conflicts; encouragement and support from NGOs; and finally, men’s strategies. The change of women’s victim consciousness demonstrates in that they began to question and challenge the unequal development of the state’s land policy, fight for realization of their rights, and be aware of their power and potential. All this has driven their actions in organizing demonstrations, studying rules and laws, resist unreasonable requirements of their husbands etc. It is demonstrated in this thesis that women’s participation in land struggles in Cambodia has had positive consequences as far as gender equality is concerned, not least women are increasingly aware of what they are capable of achieving and changing. “Empowerment along the way” aptly describes the consequences of land struggles for women in Cambodia. Yet it is argued that gender mainstreaming would be crucial for further and substantive improvement of gender equality in the country.
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