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Title: 傅爾布萊特英語助理教師在臺灣之跨文化經驗與學習
Cross-Cultural Experience and Learning: Fulbright English Teaching Assistants in Taiwan
Authors: 紀博善
Albanese, Dale
Contributors: 吳靜吉
Wu, Jing-Jyi
Albanese, Dale
Keywords: 跨文化學習
cross-cultural learning
experiential learning
transformative learning
intercultural competency
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-09-02 12:54:24 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 跨文化經驗與學習已經成為世界的趨勢,相關的研究也越來越受到重視,本研究就是希望探討跨文化經驗及其反思可能呈現的學習結果。因此,本研究以臺灣英文協同教學計畫(ETA)之美國傅爾布萊特獲獎者為對象,探討他們(一)在臺灣的跨文化經驗之可能實現的學習結果,以及( 二)跨文化經驗之體驗與轉化的學習歷程。絕大部分的獲獎者為年輕的大學畢業生,他們在臺灣五個縣市的公立國小與當地英文老師(LETs)進行11個月的協同教學,並且在計劃任務需求下長期進行跨文化合作及與來自多元領域的群體進行跨文化互動。
獲獎者(N = 199)填寫美國國務院委託執行各種美國傅爾布萊特學生計畫的機構-國際教育協會(IIE)之期末相關經驗和學習結果之問卷,以了解獲獎者從ETA計畫獲得實踐學習之成效,包括獲獎者在自評分數及開放性題目中的敘寫,顯示出跨文化經驗脈絡下學習結果範圍及相關學習歷程特徵,以及自身不同方面的改變。

另外,本研究也分析開放性題目的資料,發現幾個可能影響以上學習結果的議題,包括:(一)自我意識之反思的重要性;(二)學習來自反覆的歷程(藉由經驗、反思、詮釋、以及在新脈絡的應用);(三)容忍模糊認知增進後,視「情緒失調」為跨文化學習機會的指標; 與(四)體會個人的經驗和環境因素之間的互相影響。敘事性探究發現提供了轉化性和體驗性學習過程的證明,這些過程通過批判性的自我檢查來顯示自我知識和世界知識的演變。本研究最後提出討論、研究限制、結論和含義用於實踐和未來研究。
Motivated by a desire to further understand the range of possible learning processes and outcomes associated with participation in and reflection on cross-cultural experiences (CCE) in a global context of increased intercultural interaction and diverse research interests regarding such interaction, this study explores cross-cultural learning amongst US participants in the Fulbright Taiwan English Teaching Assistantship (ETA) Program. In most cases, grantees, primarily recent US university graduates, spend 11-months in Taiwan co-teaching in local elementary schools with local English teachers (LETs), during which time they engage in regular cross-cultural collaboration and interaction within various local community contexts.
To explore: (a) what learning outcomes may occur from these experiences, (b) how prevalent are these outcomes, and (c) how this learning might occur, this study analyzes quantitative and qualitative ETA survey data and relevant researcher experiences and knowledge. Adopting the researcher, a 2007 ETA grantee involved with the program in various capacities since that time, as focus of study, insights and analysis from life experiences involving experiential and transformative learning in cross-cultural contexts. A literature review of research in cross-cultural competencies, considered here both possible outcomes and facilitators of cross-cultural learning, relevant learning processes, including theories of experiential and transformative learning provide a framework for inquiry and analysis.
Grantee (N = 199 during 2014, 2015, and 2016 grant periods) responses to selected survey items, including scale-response and open-ended items, regarding nature of the experience and perceived learning outcomes and sources. The survey was administered at the end of their grant period by the local Fulbright administration (Foundation for Scholarly Exchange, Fulbright Taiwan) (FSE) on behalf of the Institute for Interactional Education (IIE), the US State Department commissioned organization in charge of Fulbright’s US Student Programs. Average self-report measures of change, growth, or learning in a variety of areas related to experiences in cross-cultural contexts are reported as evidence of the range and prevalence of possible learning outcomes. These responses are supplemented by analysis of open-ended responses with anecdotes from grantees about their experiences and comments and examples based on my own experiences as a grantee from 2007-2008 and subsequent engagement with the program and participants as a staff member at FSE (2008-2009), orientation speaker (2008-2018), and regular attendee of various FSE functions. Further, narrative self-inquiry findings are interspersed throughout the study in various forms offering insights and evidence of self-revelation through transformative and experiential learning while engaging with cultural difference.
Results indicate consistently high average ratings of self-perceived growth in terms of: (a) professional development, including changes in career orientation as well as accumulation of useful professional skills, specifically, leadership, intercultural communication and collaboration, cultural knowledge, and language proficiency and learning interest; and (b) personal changes, such as increased global and social interest, capacity to take multiple perspectives, adaptability, flexibility, and tolerance for ambiguity, and self-confidence. Further, consideration of open-ended responses for these growth areas as well as general thematic observations demonstrate the potential relevance of the following aspects to learning in various scenarios: (a) reflexive self-awareness and reflection; (b) iterative movements between experience, reflection and interpretation, and application in new experience contexts; (c) emotional dissonance as indicator of learning opportunity; and (d) the interrelational nature of learning in and from experience. Narrative inquiry findings offer demonstrations of transformative and experiential learning processes that show evolutions in self-knowledge and world knowledge through critical self-examination. These results are elaborated on in a discussion, which proceeds with a treatment of limitations of the present study, concluding remarks on the present findings, and implications for theory and practice, including suggestions for practice and future research.
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