Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/131853


Title: 東正教會在俄國公共外交所扮演的角色
The Role of Orthodox Church in Russian Public Diplomacy
Authors: 李寧
Lee, Ning
Contributors: 林永芳
Lin,Yung-Fang
李寧
Lee,Ning
Keywords: 公共外交
軟實力
東正教會
俄烏關係
烏克蘭危機
Public Diplomacy
Soft Power
Orthodox Church
Relation Between Russia and Ukraine
Ukraine Crisis
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-09-02 12:58:48 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 俄羅斯東正教會在過往蘇聯時期長期遭受政府壓迫,直到Mikhail Gorbachev時期宗教改革政策的催化下,開啟重返民間社會舞台之濫觴。21世紀政教關係密切,因此被俄羅斯外長Sergey Lavrov稱為夥伴關係。2000年俄羅斯總統Vladimir Putin為填補蘇聯瓦解後意識型態下的真空與國族認同問題,欲透過東正教會彰顯其所主張「主權民主」 (sovereign democracy),並作為俄羅斯民族精神、道德、文化及語言之守護者。

在國際衝突中,宗教因素時常成為一些國家獲取政權合法性支持度的手段之一,並運用在政治分裂的國家及地區,其中宗教價值觀則是國家「軟實力」組成的重要部分,藉此凸顯俄羅斯的傳統文化並爭取於國際社會上的話語權。

長期以來烏克蘭內部宗教派系持續紛擾,親俄派勢力烏克蘭正教會莫斯科牧首區(The church of the Moscow patriarchate)對抗國族派烏克蘭正教會基輔牧首區(The church of the Kyiv patriarchate)以及烏克蘭自治教會(Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church),雙方為爭奪國內東正教會正統地位而不斷發生衝突。

本文欲透過以俄羅斯「公共外交」理論中「軟實力」的宗教視角來檢視其國際實踐,同時並探究俄羅斯東正教會在烏克蘭危機上所扮演的角色。
Russian Orthodox Church had been oppressed by the government for a long time during the periods of Soviet Union regime. The reforming and revolutionary system of religion has not been activated and released until Mikhail Gorbachev's restructuring. The relation between Orthodox Church and the authority were getting closer when they moved the 21th century. As described by Sergey Lavrov, foreign ministry of Russia, called it 「partnership relationship」shows the facts. In order to fill the vacuum gap of ideology of national recognition by Soviet Union disintegrated to the Russian people, Vladimir Putin, the president of Russia, intended to state the idea of 「sovereign democracy」through the operation influence of Orthodox Church to build the guardian image of the Russian in spiritual、moral、culture and language to the people.

During the international conflicts, religious factors were often to be used as excuses by powerful countries to legally obtain the regime which were politics-split areas or countries. The value of religion is always to be center core of 「 soft power」 for the hegemonies to their diplomatic manners , as the Russia tried to highlight its traditional culture and to earn the right to speak in the world stage.

Ukraine has been factional struggled within the domestic Church at all time, two groups of one supported by Russia as The church of the Moscow patriarchate against the other one as The church of the Kyiv patriarchate, with Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church at the same camp, fight for the Orthodox status in all cost.

This thesis try to stand at the religious angle to use「soft power」through strategic public diplomacy theory to exam the global fulfillment of Russia, and to study the role play of Russian Orthodox church during the Ukraine crisis.
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〈https://www.kyivpost.com/article/content/language-bill/language-law-comes-into-force-in-ukraine-311340.html〉(accessed:2020/05/18).
Leaders Discuss Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict; Kerry Expresses 'Strong Concern'〈https://www.rferl.org/a/nagorno-karabakh-/26567727.html〉(accessed:2020/06/12).
&quot;Little green men&quot; or &quot;Russian invaders&quot;?
〈https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26532154〉(accessed:2020/05/16).
Majority of Orthodox believers in Ukraine identify with Ukrainian church, new poll shows〈http://euromaidanpress.com/2019/02/03/majority-of-orthodox-believers-in-ukraine-identify-with-ukrainian-church-new-poll-shows/〉(accessed:2020/05/24).
Moscow Draws a Religious Line in the Sand in Ukraine
〈https://jamestown.org/program/moscow-draws-a-religious-line-in-the-sand-in-ukraine/#.U_AYEFYk_1p〉(accessed:2020/05/16).
National PACE Association
〈https://www.npaonline.org/pace-you〉(accessed:2020/05/24).
Nord Stream 2: Go-ahead for Russian gas pipeline angers Ukraine
〈https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-50247793〉(accessed:2020/06/07).
‘Novorossiya,’ the latest historical concept to worry about in Ukraine
〈https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2014/04/18/understanding-novorossiya-the-latest-historical-concept-to-get-worried-about-in-ukraine/〉(accessed:2020/06/10).
Orthodox Church of Ukraine receives Tomos of Autocephaly
〈https://ucc.ca/2019/01/06/orthodox-church-of-ukraine-receives-tomos-of-autocephaly/〉(accessed:2020/01/03).
Patriarch Kirill meets with Zakharchenko, Pasechnik and Medvedchuk〈https://mospat.ru/en/2017/12/25/news155097/〉(accessed:2020/05/22).
Perestroika: Reform that changed the world
〈https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-31733045〉(accessed:2020/02/17).
Plausible Deniability
〈https://politicaldictionary.com/words/plausible-deniability/〉(accessed:2020/05/04).
Prayers Answered? Ukrainian Orthodox Church Marks One Year Of Independence From Moscow
〈https://www.rferl.org/a/ukrainian-orthodox-church-marks-one-year-of-independence-from-moscow/30393633.html〉(accessed:2020/08/07).
&quot;Public Diplomacy&quot; before Gullion: The Evolution of a phrase〈https://www.uscpublicdiplomacy.org/blog/public-diplomacy-gullion-evolution-phrase〉(accessed:2020/05/15).
Putin Revives Russian Exceptionalism〈https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2013/09/26/putin-revives-russian-exceptionalism-a28048〉(accessed:2020/08/04).
Putin’s Approval Rating
〈https://www.levada.ru/en/ratings/〉(accessed:2020/05/23).
Putin’s “Greater Novorossiya” – The Dismemberment of Ukraine〈https://www.fpri.org/article/2014/05/putins-greater-novorossiya-the-dismemberment-of-ukraine/〉(accessed:2020/05/20).
Religion in Pyongyang〈https://www.koreakonsult.com/Attraction_Pyongyang_religion_eng.html〉(accessed:2020/07/28).
RT watched more than other major international news channels in major U.S. cities
〈https://www.rt.com/about-us/press-releases/rt-watched-major-international-news-channels-major-u-s-cities/〉(accessed:2020/05/14).
Russia: How the battle with &quot;religious extremism&quot; began
〈http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=1287 (accessed:2020/03/26).
Russia: Information on the law &quot;On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations&quot; and its impact on religious minorities
〈https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6ab968.html〉(accessed:2020/03/20).
Russia investing in soft power
〈https://www.upi.com/Top_News/Special/2013/07/25/Russia-investing-in-soft-power/57361374760438/〉(accessed:2020/04/16).
Russia is Weaponizing culture in CEE by creating a traditionalist “counter-culture” 〈https://www.stopfake.org/en/russia-is-weaponizing-culture-in-cee-by-creating-a-traditionalist-counter-culture/〉(accessed:2020/06/05).
Russia To Embrace Soft Power
〈https://www.uscpublicdiplomacy.org/blog/russia-embrace-soft-power〉(assessed:2020/03/31).
Russia, Ukraine leaders sing church praises〈http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/monitoring/media_reports/1462322.stm〉 (accessed:2020/05/31).
Russian Orthodoxy and Politics in the Putin Era
〈https://carnegieendowment.org/2017/02/09/russian-orthodoxy-and-politics-in-putin-era-pub-67959〉(accessed:2020/02/17).
Russian Soft Power Under Construction
〈https://www.e-ir.info/2013/02/14/russian-soft-power-under-construction/〉(accessed:2020/05/23).
Russian’s Foreign Policy in a Historical perspective〈https://eng.globalaffairs.ru/articles/russias-foreign-policy-in-a-historical-perspective-2/〉(accessed:2020/05/24).
Sheik-ul-Islam
〈https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europe/ot-sheik-ul-islam.htm〉(accessed:2020/05/24).
Split between Ukrainian, Russian churches shows political importance of Orthodox Christianity〈https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/01/14/split-between-ukrainian-russian-churches-shows-political-importance-of-orthodox-christianity/〉(accessed:2020/12/ 28).
The Donbas Conflict Opposing Interests and Narratives, Difficult Peace Process〈https://www.swpberlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/research_papers/2019RP05_fhs.pdf〉(accessed:2020/06/04).
The Ecumenical Patriarchate recognizes the independence of the Orthodox metropolis of Kiev〈https://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/analyses/2018-10-12/ecumenical-patriarchate-recognises-independence-orthodox-metropolis〉(accessed:2020/05/20).
The Geopolitics of faith : Religious soft power in Russian and U.S. foreign policy
〈https://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/posts/the-geopolitics-of-faith-religious-soft-power-in-russian-and-u-s-foreign-policy〉(accessed:2020/01/01).
The Orthodox Churches and the ‘Church War’ in Ukraine
〈https://raamoprusland.nl/studenten/scripties/987-the-orthodox-churches-and-the-church-war-in-ukraine〉(accessed:2019/11/09).
The Political Role of the Russian orthodox church.
〈https://nationalinterest.org/feature/political-role-russian-orthodox-church-97647〉(accessed:2020/02/27).
The Religious Diplomacy of the Russian Federation〈https://www.ifri.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/ifrirnr12curanovicreligiousdiplomacyjune2012.pdf〉(accessed:2020/01/03).
The Role Of Religion And Values In Russian Politics: The Case Of Hybrid Warfare
〈https://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/posts/the-geopolitics-of-faith-religious-soft-power-in-russian-and-u-s-foreign-policy〉(accessed:2020/01/01).
The Russian Orthodox Church Department For External Church Relations〈https://mospat.ru/en/documents/social-concepts/〉(accessed:2020/05/24).
Traditional religion and political power: Examining the role of the church in Georgia, Armenia, Ukraine and Moldova〈https://fpc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/1707.pdf〉(accessed:2020/01/03).
Treaty of Jassy〈https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Jassy〉(accessed:2020/08/10).
Ukraine hits back at Russian TV onslaught
〈https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26546083〉(accessed:2020/05/18).
Ukraine Orthodox leaders approve break with Russian church 〈https://www.latimes.com/world/la-fg-ukraine-russia-orthodox-church-20181215-story.html〉(accessed:2020/05/22).
Ukraine Separatists Vow to Fight On as President Unveils
Ceasefire Plan〈https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/18/ukraine-president-ceasefire-plan-vladimir-putin〉(accessed:2020/05/22).
Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church ceases to exist〈https://www.kyivpost.com/ukraine-politics/ukrainian-autocephalous-orthodox-church-ceases-to-exist.html〉(accessed:2020/05/19).
“Ukrainian Orthodox Christians Formally Break From Russia”〈https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/06/world/europe/orthodox-church-ukraine-russia.html〉(accessed:2020/01/03).
Ukrainian Orthodox Church Enthrones Epifaniy As Leader〈https://www.rferl.org/a/ukrainian-orthodox-church-enthrones-epifaniy-as-leader/29748596.html〉(accessed:2020/05/31).
(Un)Holy Alliance: Vladimir Putin, The Russian Orthodox Church And Russian Exceptionalism〈https://www.forbes.com/sites/paulcoyer/2015/05/21/unholy-alliance-vladimir-putin-and-the-russian-orthodox-church/#5d3b65ca27d5〉(accessed:2020/01/03).
Unpacking Russia's New National Security Strategy〈https://www.csis.org/analysis/unpacking-russias-new-national-security-strategy〉(accessed:2020/05/15).
What is the “symphonia of powers”?
〈https://katehon.com/article/what-symphonia-powers〉(accessed:2020/05/03).
Why Ukraine needs a free and recognized Orthodox Church〈http://euromaidanpress.com/2018/05/18/hovorun-ukraine-autocephalous-orthodox-church/〉(accessed:2020/05/22).
Why Russia thinks it’s exceptional
〈https://theconversation.com/why-russia-thinks-its-exceptional-85240〉(accessed:2020/03/05).
Why Russia’s soft power is too soft?
〈http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/redcol/Why-Russias-Soft-Power-Is-TooSoft-15845〉(accessed:2020/05/15).
Works of Karl Marx 1843
A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right
Introduction〈https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1843/critique-hpr/intro.htm〉(accessed:2020/03/23).
30 Parishes of the UOC (MP) move to the jurisdiction of Kyiv Patriarchate
〈https://risu.org.ua/en/index/all_news/confessional/orthodox_relations/58421/〉(accessed:2020/05/20).

四、俄文部分:

(一)書目

Достоевский, Ф. М《Бесы》–Москва-Берлин: Директ-медия,2005.

(二)網路資料

Архиерейском Соборе Русской Православной Церкви
〈http://p2.patriarchia.ru/2016/02/02/1238671510/doklad_AS_2016.docx〉 (accessed: 2020/03/28).
Архиепископ Клинский Лонгин вручил Президенту Исландии орден Русской Православной Церкви〈http://mospat.ru/archive/2005/02/25795/〉(accessed:2020/05/24).
Владимир Путин посетил кафедральный собор Александра Невского в болгарской столице
〈http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/352042.html〉(accessed:2020/05/25).
Власти Мадрида передадут Русской Православной Церкви участок земли под строительство храма
〈http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/572660.html〉(accessed:2020/05/25).
Воцерковленность православных
〈https://fom.ru/TSennosti/11587〉(accessed:2020/05/10).
Выступление Святейшего Патриарха Кирилла на торжественном открытии III Ассамблеи Русского мира〈http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/928446.html〉(accessed:2020/05/24).
Доклад Местоблюстителя Патриаршего Престола митрополита Смоленского и Калининградского Кирилла на Поместном Соборе Русской Православной Церкви〈 http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/541724.html〉(accessed: 2020/03/28).
Доклад Святейшего Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла на
Под Петербургом установили памятник Путину в образе римского императора〈https://www.rbc.ru/rbcfreenews/55588fde9a794724dab003e3〉(accessed: 2020/03/27).
Ереван предлагает Азербайджану и Карабаху восстановить перемирие
〈http://www.interfax-religion.ru/orthodoxy/?act=archive&div=8464〉(accessed:2020/05/24).
Запад вошёл в конфликт с нравственной природой человека»: патриарх Кирилл в интервью RT
〈https://russian.rt.com/russia/article/334313-patriarh-kirill-intervyu-rt〉(accessed:2020/05/10).
Императорское православное палестинское общество (ИППО)〈http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/77177.html〉(accessed:2020/05/26).
Концепция внешней политики Российской Федерации〈http://www.ng.ru/dipkurer/2013-03-04/9_concept.html〉(accessed:2020/12/20).
Межрелигиозный Совет СНГ
〈http://interreligious.ru/interreligious-council/〉(accessed:2020/05/25).
«Не аннексированная» церковь в Крыму〈https://ru.krymr.com/a/neanneksirovannaya-tserkov-v-krymu/29535969.html〉
(accessed:2020/06/03).
О влиянии РПЦ на разные сферы жизни страны
〈https://fom.ru/TSennosti/14371〉(accessed:2020/05/10).
От российского народа - сирийскому народу〈https://www.ippo.ru/humanitarian/article/ot-rossiyskogo-naroda---siriyskomu-narodu-307312〉(accessed:2020/05/25).
Открытие Всемирного саммита религиозных Лиде〈http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/23682〉(accessed:2020/05/25).
Портрет электоратов Ющенко и Януковича
〈https://web.archive.org/web/20150403101945/http://www.analitik.org.ua/researches/archives/3dee44d0/41ecef0cad01e/〉(accessed:2020/06/07).
Послание Президенту Украины Виктору Ющенко〈http://www.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/5158〉(accessed:2020/05/20).
Президент России В.В.Путин принял участников Архиерейского Собора во главе со Святейшим Патриархом Алексием〈https://mospat.ru/archive/2004/10/7845/〉(accessed:2020/05/25).
Президент утвердил новую редакцию Военной доктрины
〈http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/news/47334〉(accessed:2020/05/27).
Протоиерей Андрей Новиков: «Если мы не остановим войну на Украине, она придет в Россию»
〈https://orthoview.ru/protoierej-andrej-novikov-esli-my-ne-ostanovim-vojnu-na-ukraine-ona-pridet-v-rossiyu/〉(accessed:2020/05/16).
&quot;Ромир&quot;: РАН и РПЦ обогнали президента в рейтинге доверия россиян
〈http://www.rosinform.ru/society/336224-vedomosti-ran-i-rpts-obognali-prezidenta-v-reytinge-doveriya-rossiyan/〉(accessed: 2020/03/03).
РПЦ передала более $1,3 млн для пострадавших в Сирии
〈https://ria.ru/20130807/954925269.html〉(accessed:2020/05/10).
Святейший Патриарх Кирилл встретился с Президентом Кубы Мигелем Диас-Канелем Бермудесом〈http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/5522340.html〉(accessed:2020/08/06).
Совещание послов и постоянных представителей России
〈http://www.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/15902〉(accessed:2020/05/10).
Состоялось XXIII заседание Рабочей группы по взаимодействию Русской Православной Церкви и МИД России〈http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/5301181.html〉(accessed:2020/05/25).
Состоялась трехсторонняя встреча Святейшего Патриарха Кирилла, председателя Духовного управления мусульман Кавказа шейх-уль-ислама Аллахшукюра Паша-заде и Католикоса всех армян Гарегина II
〈http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/1148316.html〉(accessed:2020/05/24).
Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 05.12.2016 г. № 646〈http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/41460〉(accessed:2020/05/27).
Утверждена Стратегия национальной безопасности России
〈http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/news/51129〉(accessed:2020/05/27).
Церковь и Государство
〈http://www.levada.ru/2016/02/19/tserkov-i-gosudarstvo-2/〉(accessed: 2020/03/03).
Церковь и политики готовы способствовать урегулированию в Карабахе
〈http://www.interfax-religion.ru/buddhism/?act=archive&div=10059〉(accessed:2020/05/24).
1 октября 1990 года № 1689-1
Союз Светских Социалистических Республик закон о свободе совести и религиозных организациях
〈http://www.r-komitet.ru/vera/26.htm〉(accessed: 2020/03/10).


四、烏克蘭文部分:

(一)網路資料

Держава І Церква в Україні-2019:Підсумки Року І Перспективи Розвитку Відносин
〈http://razumkov.org.ua/uploads/article/2019_Religiya.pdf〉
(accessed:2020/05/31).
Затверджено
Наказ Міністерства культури України
від &quot;29&quot; березня 2017 р. № 260〈http://www.irs.in.ua/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1829%3A1&catid=51%3Astats&Itemid=79&lang=ru〉(accessed:2020/06/01).
Зеленський вибачився за те, що назвав томос «термосом» – патріарх Філарет
〈https://www.unian.ua/politics/10533015-zelenskiy-vibachivsya-za-te-shcho-nazvav-tomos-termosom-patriarh-filaret.html〉(accessed:2020/05/22).
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
俄羅斯研究所
106263011
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106263011
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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