Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/131858


Title: 2015年難民危機對歐盟移民與難民庇護政策的影響與挑戰
The Impact and Challenge of 2015 Migration Crisis to Migration, Refugee and Asylum Policy of the European Union
Authors: 陳令筑
Chen, Ling-Chu
Contributors: 蘇卓馨
Su, Cho-Hsin
陳令筑
Chen, Ling-Chu
Keywords: 歐盟
難民危機
移民政策
德國
匈牙利
多層次治理
European Union
Migration crisis
Migration policy
Germany
Hungary
Multi-Level Governance
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-09-02 12:59:51 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 由於敘利亞內戰以及伊斯蘭國(ISIS)崛起,自2015年大量來自中東與北非的難民與尋求庇護者湧入歐盟,造成歐盟的難民危機。面對此棘手情勢,歐盟制定出幾項相應的共同政策,如「歐盟-土耳其難民協議」與「難民分配政策」等。由於歐盟各成員國對於歐盟的共同政策反應不一,尤其以匈牙利為首的「維謝拉德集團」(Visegrad)國家不願配合的情況下,歐盟無法有效處理此危機,甚至讓會員國間的歧異與鴻溝擴大,導致歐盟的「團結」面臨挑戰。

另外,本研究也深入探討歐盟會員國中對於難民危機反應最極端的兩國—德國與匈牙利作為個案分析。危機伊始,德國對於難民展開雙臂歡迎,但由於國內民意反彈作出政策調整,但整體而言仍對難民與庇護申請者友善包容;反之匈牙利對於難民極度排斥,非但拒絕配合歐盟的難民分配政策,對於進入匈牙利的難民待遇亦極不友善,透過頒布諸如「阻止索羅斯法」等新政策,懲罰難民及幫助難民的非政府組織。匈牙利對於難民的諸多限制性政策,不但遭致廣泛批評,更引發匈牙利與歐盟間的「法律戰」。

本研究以「多層次治理理論」分析歐盟層次與會員國層次對於難民危機的反應與分工,解釋歐盟層次及會員國層次互動後的結果產出。研究發現為歐盟面臨「難民的人道」與「歐盟的安全」兩難取捨時,仍以自身安全為首要考量的結論。此外,我國亦可從歐盟面對此次難民危機的經驗中學習,未來若面對類似情形時才不會束手無策。
Due to the Syrian civil war and the rise of ISIS, a great number of refugees and asylum seekers coming from Middle East and North Africa flocked into Europe since 2015, resulting the migration crisis in the European Union (EU). Facing this thorny situation, the EU came up with several corresponding policies to deal with it, such as the “EU-Turkey Agreement” and the “Refugee Quota Policy”. However, since Member States showed different responses toward EU’s common policy, especially due to the boycotting by “Visegrad” group, EU therefore couldn’t cope with this crisis effectively. As a result, this crisis not only deepened the division between EU Member States, but also challenged the EU’s solidarity.

This thesis also takes Germany and Hungary as countries for case study. In the outbreak of this crisis, Germany welcomed the refugees and asylum seekers with open arms, though the policy was adjusted due to the backlash from domestic public opinion. Still, generally speaking, Germany was tolerant and friendly to refugees and asylum seekers. By contrast, Hungary treated them in a totally different way. Hungary not only boycotted the EU’s “Refugee Quota Policy”, it also enacted “Stop Soros Law” to punish refugees coming to Hungary and the NGOs assisting refugees. Hungary’s restrictive policy not only got criticized widely but also got sued by EU.

This thesis applies “Multi-Level Governance” as its main theory to analyze the reaction between Member State level and EU level in the crisis, explaining the interplay between levels as well as the policy output. This thesis concludes that when EU facing the dilemma between “humanity” and “EU’s security”, its security still prevails. Lastly, Taiwan can also learn a lesson from this experience of EU when facing similar situation in the future.
Reference: 中文資料
碩士論文:
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期刊:
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王雲東,《社會研究方法:量化與質性取向及其應用》,第二版(2012)
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期刊:
Danila Rijavec& Primož Pevcin,”An Examination and Evaluation of Multi-Level Governance During Migration Crisis: The Case of Slovenia”, Central European Public Administration Review(2018), 16(1),pp.81–98
Dieter Bräuninger, “Reform of the Common European Asylum System”, 2018.04.12 Deutsche Bank Research
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Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
外交學系
106253022
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106253022
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[外交學系] 學位論文

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