Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/131957


Title: 美貌新神話:數位化的美貌觀看與女性的對應觀點
To Be Beautiful and More: Exploring Digitalized Beauty Myth and Corresponding Women’s (In)Actions
Authors: 黃宣萓
Huang, Hsuan-I
Contributors: 柯裕棻
Ko, Yu-Fen
黃宣萓
Huang, Hsuan-I
Keywords: 美貌
數位化
規訓
觀看機制
厭女
蕩婦羞辱
審美勞動
女性能動性
beauty
digitalization
apparatus of gazing
discipline
misogyny
slut-shaming
aesthetic labor
agency of women
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-09-02 13:18:38 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 網路媒介中的行動與交流使得觀看視線複雜化,對美貌的觀看機制於焉新生。女性正面對著舊有觀看方式的變異,和於數位化環境中蔓生繁盛的美貌神話。循此背景,本研究關注數位化的美貌觀看機制和女性行動,如何重構美貌的概念與實踐,和背後的觀看權力關係流動。以PTT表特板貼文和貼文主角為研究對象,本研究首先藉由批判言說分析,論證納入女性身體、資本與被觀看意願的數位化美貌論述,再透過深度訪談,瞭解女性的對應觀點和行動策略,探討觀看的性別社會意義。

本研究發現,數位化的美貌觀看藉由繁複的言說策略以行使動態的觀看權力,不視女性為整體,在言說中將其拆解、評量、給予獎懲,是無所不在的監視手段。數位化的美貌觀看機制首先創造了完美身體的神話,比典型觀看方式更加細膩地探查、幻想女體,使女性主體性在言說中消失。其次,資本在數位化的觀看機制中被揭露,扁平化、性化為美貌的價值符碼,以建構並擴大虛假的美貌階級和真實的規訓。資本相應的社會價值被取消,甚至用以在想像中貶低、蕩婦化女性。最後,女性對自身美貌的認知和被觀看的意願也同樣受到觀看,成為檢核美貌價值的最終判準。女性被觀看意願和她的可看性之間存在反向的升降關係,意在規訓女性被觀看時的順從姿態。

女性具此發展出對美貌的自我覺察和無止盡的身體焦慮,不斷回看自己於美貌論述中的相對位置,進行審美勞動與情感勞動。而美貌論述在吸收資本後擴張的反射作用,使女性陷入有口難言的困境中,任何批評美貌觀看的嘗試,都可能換來對她外表、資本和性可得程度的質疑和貶低。被觀看的意願更是如今女性內化觀看時新添入的自我審查。女性只能單純視美貌被觀看的現象為無可避免的風險,更加謹慎地使用社群媒體,以免落入「想紅」、「還不是自己願意被看」的指責。然而,女性仍可能在同理她者的經驗中突破美貌對女性群體的制約,透過遠離網路或積極展演、介入觀看等線上行動展現能動性,翻轉看與被看的權力關係。
With the Internet penetrating the modern world, the apparatus of gazing is now discursive, and has transformed with the randomness of the women it gazes at, the proliferation of criteria it examines, and the subtle yet powerful tactic of misogyny it manifests. A digitalized beauty myth has, therefore, come into being. By exploring the digital apparatus of beauty gazing and the corresponding women’s (in)action, this paper aims to expound on the flourishing beauty myth──how it is expanded and practiced──and the mutable power relation of gazing online.

By conducting critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the posts and comments in PTT Bulletin Board System, the largest anonymous online forum of Taiwan, this paper argues that the digital apparatus of beauty gazing has sophisticatedly included not only a woman’s appearance, but also her capital and (un)willingness of being gazed at. The discourse of beauty first creates a non-existent state of perfection for women's body, in a more explicit and obscene fashion, compared with the offline beauty myth. Women’s subjectivity is erased by the obscenity wrapped in compliments and criticisms of sexual fantasy. Then, a woman's social and cultural capital is scrutinized in order to re-negotiate or to stigmatize a woman’s desirability or integrity. All her capital becomes shallow and sexual symbols in a fabricated, all-round hierarchy of beauty which creates authentic discipline. Ultimately, a woman’s attitude toward her own beauty is inspected. Her worth of and her (un)willingness of being gazed at have a negative correlation, which serves the purpose of disciplining women to be docile while facing the apparatus of beauty gazing.

Drawing on in-depth interviews with seven women being featured in the posts, this paper reveals the corresponding prevarication and actions of these gazed women. Submerged in the ubiquitous beauty myth, women evolve endless awareness and anxiety over their body and their relative ranking in the hierarchy of beauty, with aesthetic labor, both physically and emotionally, thereby induced. The reflex for women to discuss the beauty myth as a structural issue has also expanded along with its inclusion of capital. Women become evasive while facing the apparatus of beauty gazing, since any attempts to challenge it can lead to ridicule and contempt of her appearance, capital or sexual availability. The inspection of women’s willingness of being gazed at is now part of their inner surveillance also, forcing her to view the apparatus of gazing as an inevitable personal risk. Women then cautiously self-examine their social media use to avoid the condemnation of attention-seeking. However, women’s breakout from the beauty myth still happens with their experience of empathizing with others. As some retreat from the digital environment and some start to counterattack online──such as performing actively with feminist initiatives and disordering the apparatus of gazing on their own social media──women’s agency and the possibility of overturning the power relation of gazing can be seen.
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Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
傳播學院傳播碩士學位學程
105464027
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105464027
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[傳播學院傳播碩士學位學程] 學位論文

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