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Title: 感同「身受」:虛擬實境體現他人經驗對同理心與助人意願的強化效果
I Feel What You Feel: Using Virtual Embodiment to Increase Affective Empathy and Willingness to Help
Authors: 吳岱芸
Wu, Dai-Yun
Contributors: 林日璇
Lin, Jih-Hsuan
Wu, Dai-Yun
Keywords: 合理性錯覺
affective empathy
cognitive empathy
willingness to help
plausibility illusion
virtual embodiment
virtual reality
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-09-02 13:21:27 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 虛擬實境科技能讓使用者置身於特定情境中,以第一人稱觀點直接體現(embody)他人的主觀經驗,因而被認為具有促進同理的潛力,甚至被稱做「同理心機器」。然而對此觀點,相關實證研究尚未獲得一致結論,且過去研究主要關注虛擬實境科技對於認知同理的強化效果而少有研究討論其對情感同理的影響。本研究填補過去研究缺口,同時關注同理心的認知與情感面向,指出虛擬實境科技幫助使用者對他人苦痛「感同身受」的潛力或許是促進情感同理與助人意願的關鍵因素,並提出體驗過程中的合理性錯覺與情緒反應是其中重要的效果機制。
透過2(媒介沉浸層級:虛擬實境裝置/桌上型電腦) x 2(體現方式:有虛擬身體/無虛擬身體)的組間設計實驗,本研究讓參與者(n = 140)以第一人稱觀點體現街友的負面經驗後,比較其所展現的情感同理、認知同理反應與助人意願差異。研究結果顯示,虛擬實境體現對於同理心以及助人意願有間接的強化效果。透過虛擬實境體現街友的負面經驗的參與者比使用桌上電腦進行體驗的參與者展現出更強的情感同理與認知同理反應,也表達了更高的助人意願,但其效果需經由合理性錯覺的中介而產生。此外,結果亦顯示出虛擬實境體現他人經驗的過程,可以經由不同的機制分別強化情感同理與認知同理反應,點出體現過程所引發的情緒經驗的重要性,支持本研究的觀點。
Virtual reality technology (VR) is described as “empathy machine” because it allows users to step into another person's shoes and embody the subjective experience of others. However, empirical evidence supporting the claim that VR is more effective in eliciting empathy than other medium is limited. Besides, much of the research up to now has only focused on VR’s effects on the cogintive facet of empathy. The present study aimed to establish an understanding of the effects and mechanisms of VR on the state of affective as well as cognitive empathy and prosocial intention. This study proposed and tested a serial mediated moderation model arguing that the plausibility illusion and emotional reactions emerging in the experience is the critical mechanisms. In a 2 (levels of media immersion: desktop computer vs. VR) × 2 (virtual body representation: visible body vs. no body) between-subject experiment, 140 participants embodied as a homeless and experienced a negative episode. The results showed that levels of media immersion had indirect effects on affective empathy, cognitive empathy and intention to help. Participants who experienced the negative episode of the homeless with VR reported higher levels of affective empathy, cognitive empathy and willingness to help than the participants who experienced the negative episode on the desktop computer. These effects were mediated by plausibility illusion. Furthermore, the results also suggested that virtual embodiment enhanced affective empathy and cognitive empathy through different mechanisms, highlighting the role of emotional responses during the virtual embodiment experience and supporting the argument of this research.
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