Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/132082


Title: 影響個人環保行為意圖與捐贈選擇之實驗分析
Individuals’ Pro-environmental Behavioral Intention:Experimental Evidence from Donation Decisions
Authors: 袁登毅
Yuan, Teng-Yi
Contributors: 蕭代基
Shaw, Dai-Gee
袁登毅
Yuan, Teng-Yi
Keywords: 空氣污染
氣候變遷
未來想像
個人環保行為
計劃行為理論
經濟實驗
分數多項logit模型
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-10-05 15:18:43 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究旨在分析影響個人環保行為意圖與捐贈選擇之因素,選定空污及氣候變遷這兩個廣為人知但形成原因與影響範圍相異的環境議題,前者為短期當代的環境問題,後者屬於跨代且長期的環境議題,在長時間累積下所致;近年來,民眾越來越重視空污危害,卻忽視其自身與社會造成的跨代外部性,故在實驗設計中引入未來想像之效果,嘗試解決世代之間的外部性問題。

本文結合計畫行為理論與實驗,檢驗行為意圖與實際行為是否一致,探討實驗組與對照組的捐贈選擇是否有所差異。自變數為個人特徵變數與行為意圖變數,應變數是各項金額比例,皆介於0到1之間,因此採用分數多項logit模型對比例形式的應變數建模。問卷資料處理的部分,分別以主成份分析法、因素分析法、平均法與最大變異數法計算各個構面的分數;模型估計分為兩個階段,先將應變數分為捐贈與帶走的比例,瞭解影響個人捐贈的因素,再將捐贈金額拆開,分析捐贈各項議題之動機。

實證結果顯示,本次實驗資料在主成份分析法、因素分析法、平均法計算下的顯著變數相同,僅顯著性相異,而最大變異數法中出現部分不合理的結果,選定以主成份分析法說明後續實證結果。實驗組傾向捐贈空污防治,但未來想像的效果對選擇捐贈的機率無顯著影響;個人特徵部分,性別與是否常接觸環境資訊對捐贈機率的影響最顯著;男性不傾向選擇捐贈,尤其更不傾向捐贈空污防治,而常接觸環境資訊的人會傾向選擇捐贈,且會傾向兩個議題都捐。行為意圖構面部分,「感知行為控制」與「空污之未來性」是影響選擇捐贈的關鍵因素,當個人對周遭資源的掌控能力越高或空污之未來性越強時,其選擇捐贈的機率也會提高;各項議題捐贈方面,感知行為控制與未來性對空污與氣候變遷之捐贈皆有正向且顯著之影響;行為意圖部分,對總捐贈金額比例與空污、氣候變遷之捐贈金額比例皆有正向且顯著影響,代表當個人從事環保行為的意願提高時,實際選擇捐贈的機率也會增加,顯示行為意圖與實際行為相符。

由此可知,未來想像的效果尚不足以改變當代人看重短期環境問題的現象,受測者反而更關心未來世代所面臨的空污問題,推測導致此結果的可能原因為以下六點,第一點為「未來想像」與「想像的未來世代」之差異,在本研究的未來想像中,受測者仍站在「當代人」的角度思考,而非考量未來世代的生存問題;第二點與未來想像的設計有關,推測未來想像的年代2100年對受測者來說太遙遠,導致受測者難以想像未來世界的情況,無法感受未來世代的生存危機;第三點與空污所導致的病痛有關,因為在實驗說明的簡報中特別強調空污對人體的危害,尤其對生育的影響,參與實驗的受測者皆為學生,故推測其更加重視對生殖系統的威脅;第四點與捐贈行為的「匿名性有關」,實驗最後以「政大環保行動」的方式統一將所有人的捐贈金額彙整後捐出,並非以個人名義,因此可能降低受測者的捐贈動機;第五點來自於對環保團體執行能力與成效的疑慮,因為環保團體常以抗議或發起遊行的方式表達訴求,推測在這樣的情況下受測者可能會傾向自己做,而非交給環保團體代勞;第六點與議題相關,目前的實驗設計方法為以空污與氣候變遷相互對照供,推測受測者可能因此將重點放在比較自身對於氣候變遷與空污的重視程度,忽視原本欲強化實驗組對未來考量的用意;影響捐贈的關鍵因素為感知行為控制與未來性,行為意圖部分,在所有模型中皆有正向且顯著影響,因此,未來如何提升個人解決環境問題的意願仍是重要課題。
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Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
經濟學系
107258014
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