Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/132172


Title: 魔、精把關:《西遊記》的過關敘述及其諷喻
Demons and Fairies Guarding Obstacles: The Narrative on Passing Obstacles and Allegories Implied in Journey to the West
Authors: 李豐楙
Lee, Fong-mao
Contributors: 政大中文學報
Keywords: 《西遊記》 ; 過關 ; 解厄 ; 壇場圖 ; 宗教文學 
Journey to the West ; passing obstacles ; overcoming adversities ; altar paintings ; religious literature
Date: 2019-06
Issue Date: 2020-10-12 09:53:44 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 從「過關」的敘述模式詮釋《西遊記》,此一研究所提出的理論框架,乃基於民俗性博戲與儀式性過關,內證就是文本中習用賭賽、賭勝,尤其賭鬥最多。將鬥法事件視為西遊的厄難,魔、精把關則執行觀音的試煉設計,使得難關與解除存在戲劇性張力。而像「過關」儀式中神力的介入協助,配合五聖間的合作方能過關,將其視同封閉性的賽局,都在可控制的情況下,如此就形成一種閱讀的吸引力。負責把關的魔、精,其妖精乃久年成精,而妖魔雖則托化成精,實則出身佛教、道教,其次數相當而佛道均衡。取經既是佛教故事的小說化,理當由佛教自行擔綱,卻須向道教商借,次數甚至道多於佛,也就顯示作者的宗教知識背景。其核心觀念即基於「有法有破」,而精怪雖代表邪法,卻未全都被滅絕,有的被收服後持續修行,即彰顯此一時期佛、道教的修行觀。在鬥法事件中穿插了許多法寶,既環扣銜接大小事件以增加趣味性,並凸顯法寶乃妖魔從天界主人處偷到下界,其法力遠非行者等人的法器所能對付,最後均須勞動主人才能收伏;此一筆法既增強五聖試煉的力度,也使過關在遊戲的趣味性之外,假設曾受到道釋畫的觸發,乃由魚籃觀音的相好推論華嚴三聖的座騎,如文殊的青獅、普賢的白象,以及觀音的金毛犼等,此一構想乃取自佛教壇場圖;而道教壇制及其聖像也多所啟發,如:老君的座騎青牛、太乙救苦天尊的九頭獅,乃至風雷雲雨、二十八星宿等,既屬道場用物,也因常見而激發其構思,並非純屬想像。又從顯、潛的多音交錯,考掘作者借魔、精而寓托,其本來面目乃銘刻著明代社會的政治標記,既將魔、精的占山為王、公然當(擋)道,認為影射嘉靖時期的藩王、豪戶,故筆法愈加滑稽諧謔,實即掩飾其諷喻現實的嚴肅,由此推測作者未曾具名的原因,此即宗教文學的詮釋,也是諷喻文化下的傳統讀法。
This paper establishes the narrative mode of "passing obstacle" to interpret Journey to the West, and proposes a theoretical framework based on folk games and ritualistic obstacle passing. This framework is supported by the text which includes words such as "dusai" (賭賽), "dusheng" (賭勝), and the most frequently used "dudou" (賭鬥), all of which are related with wagering. The plots of matching magic power involve adversities in Journey to the West. The demons and fairies carry out orders by the Bodhisattva Avalokitsvara (Guanyin), to test Sanzang (Tripitaka) and his disciples. Dramatic tension is created between the demons and fairies setting up and Sanzang and his disciples overcoming the obstacles. The folk rituals of "passing obstacle" require divine intervention, similarly, the five immortals must collaborate to overcome the obstacles. The obstacles are set up in such a way to resemble a closed, controlled competition, which attracts and encourages readers to continuing reading. Among the demons and fairies responsible for guarding the obstacles, the fairies come into being after many years of practice, while the demons must assume the forms of other beings. The frequency of occurrences of transformation of demons and fairies is evenly distributed between Buddhist and Daoist references. Since Journey to the West is the novelization of Buddhist stories, the pilgrimage should be based on Buddhist belief. However, the plots also involve Daoism, the occurrence of Daoist references is even more than that of Buddhism, revealing the author's religious knowledge base. The core concept behind the "passing obstacle" narrative is based on "casting and breaking the spells," however, even though the demons and fairies embody evil forces, they are not all terminated. Some of them are subdued and given the chance to continue practicing, which highlights the emphasis on practicing in both Buddhism and Daoism at the time when the novel was written. The plots of matching magic power are interspersed with the use of many magic weapons, this design connects the relevant big and small incidents to make the stories more interesting. Since the magic weapons are stolen by the demons and fairies from their heavenly masters, their power far exceeds that of weapons of the disciples. The only way to subdue the demons and fairies is to summon the heavenly masters. The plots are designed as such to increase the intensity of practice required of the five immortals, to make the plots more interesting, and are likely inspired by Daoist and Buddhist paintings. The mounts of the Avatamsaka (Flower Adornment) Assembly, such as the Bodhisattva Manjusri (Wenshu)'s blue lion, the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra (Puxian)'s white elephant, and Bodhisattva Avalokitsvara's golden-haired lion, are modeled after depiction of marks of the embodiment of the fish basket holding Bodhisattva Guanyin. This conception of figures draws from Buddhist altar paintings. The Daoist altar and statues are the inspiration for the Grand Supreme Elder Lord (Taishang laojun)'s blue ox, the Celestial Worthy Savior from Suffering (Taiyi jiuku tianzun)'s nine-headed lion, even the wind, thunder, cloud and rain gods, twenty-eight stars, etc. These figures are often seen in Daoist rituals and not solely based on imagination. This paper also explores how the manifested and hidden meanings are staggered, to understand how the author uses demons and fairies as metaphors for political reality of the Ming dynasty. The demons and fairies that occupy mountains and roads are seen as allusions to the lords and strongmen during the Jiajing era. The funny stories in the novel are designed to mask the harsh reality that the author intends to portray, this may also be why the author did not reveal his name. This is the conventional way to interpret religious literature in a culture relying on allegories to convey meanings.
Relation: 政大中文學報, 31, 77-127
Data Type: article
DOI 連結: https://doi.org/ 10.30407/BDCL.201906_(31).0004
Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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