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A Study on the Joseon Catholic Confucians' Interpretation of Qi Ke (the Seven Restraints): Focusing on the Thought of the Pro-western Branch of the Seong-ho School
|Keywords:||朝鮮黨爭 ; 克己復禮 ; 妬（妒）忌 ; 《七克》 ; 李瀷（星湖） |
fractional struggles in the Joseon Dynasty ; subduing one's self and returning to propriety ; jealousy ; Qi Ke ; Yi Ik (Seong-ho)
|Issue Date:||2020-10-12 09:53:52 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||本文從東亞思想史的視野，以朝鮮實學儒者李瀷（星湖）對《七克》一書之詮釋，嘗試觀察在朝鮮黨爭歷史脈絡下的儒耶交流之進行。16世紀以降，朝鮮王朝發生了延續近兩個世紀以上的激烈「黨爭」，有志儒者皆思索解決之道。星湖追溯歷史，分析「黨爭」所以形成，乃因朝鮮王朝17至18世紀之間，科舉錄取人數增額過多，能錄用士子之位卻不足，導致「十人共一官，猶無可授」，最後發展成「人多則妬，妬甚成亂」的黨爭局面。導致「一國一君一朝廷」因黨爭而分裂為「八」，不同黨色間「常懷妬婦之心」互相鬥爭，政治發展面臨嚴重困境。直至19世紀王朝末年，士大夫「克己有所未竟」，卻率「天下之庸人」結成「道學之黨」互相鬥爭的局面該如何解決，仍是朝鮮諸儒深思的問題。隨著朝貢使臣管道傳入朝鮮的西學書《七克》，以天主教之「七罪宗」（Seven deadly sins，「傲、妬、貪、淫、忿、饕、怠」）概念，對《論語》「克己復禮」之「己」字做出新詮釋。書中對「妬忌」問題的深入分析，切中了身處黨爭脈絡下星湖師弟之期待，讓星湖認定「《七克》是四勿註腳」，並對《七克》中「克妬」思想做出再詮釋。這是天主教思想自明代進入中國進行諸多「調適」後，又在朝鮮半島「再脈絡化」（re-contextualization）的一段歷史。對朝鮮天主教會之初創具有重要影響。|
This paper examines the interaction between Christianity and Confucianism through analyzing the interpretation of Qi Ke by a pragmatic Korean Confucian scholar Yi Ik (also named Seong-ho), within the context of the fractional struggles during the Joseon Dynasty. The ferocious struggles lasted over two centuries, starting from the beginning of the 16^(th) century. Concerned about the tumultuous situation, patriotic Confucian scholars sought a resolution to the struggles. Seong-ho, a Confucian scholar analyzed the struggles and found them to have originated from over-recruiting through the imperial examinations. Since the number of official posts were limited, competitions among scholars were fierce, eventually giving rise to the struggles that divided the court into eight fractions. Seong-ho determined that jealousy drove the scholars to conflicts, which brought the country into perils. By the end of the 19^(th) century, when the dynasty was coming to its end, scholars failed to conduct themselves properly, yet they led the commoners to engage in fractional struggles. Informed scholars were deeply concerned about the situation and actively looked for a solution. Qi Ke was introduced to the Korean Confucian scholars through the channel of diplomatic envoys. Scholars used the concept of the seven deadly sins (pride, envy, greed, lust, wrath, gluttony and sloth) of the Catholic church to reinterpret the concepts of ＂subduing of one's self and returning to propriety＂ and ＂self＂ in the teachings of Confucius. The in-depth analysis of ＂envy＂ in Qi Ke led Seong-Ho and his disciples to the belief that it would serve as an important annotation to the Confucius's four ＂thou shalt not＂ in the Analects in their endeavor to resolve the fractional struggles. They also reinterpreted ＂envy＂ to better fit their purpose. After the significant ＂adaptions＂ made upon being introduced during the Ming dynasty in China, Catholicism underwent re-contextualization in the Korean Peninsula, which had a significant influence on the establishment of the Catholic church in Korea.
|Relation:||政大中文學報, 31, 173-217|
|DOI 連結:||https://doi.org/ 10.30407/BDCL.201906_(31).0006|
|Appears in Collections:||[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文|
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