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Title: 抒情輓歌:泣與血的易順鼎詩學
Lyrical Elegy: Yi Shun-ding's Poetics of Tears and Blood
Authors: 曾守仁
Tseng, Shou-jen
Contributors: 政大中文學報
Keywords: 易順鼎 ; 清末民初 ; 抒情傳統 ; 清遺民 
Yi Shun-ding ; late Qing and early Republic of China ; lyrical tradition ; Qing loyalist
Date: 2019-06
Issue Date: 2020-10-12 09:54:04 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 易順鼎(1858-1920)身歷清末民初,詩名頗著,在錢基博、汪辟疆、錢仲聯等前賢的文學史論著裡,都出現他的身影;而易順鼎形象多變,時人有神童、才子、名士、瘋子之目;亦有哭盦、酒徒、死活人、怡紅公子之自謂。其作詩既速且豐,從詩鐘、聯句到長篇七古,不拘一體,在此風雲時代裡都表現出新吾/故我的多重面目,並帶來詩歌形式的新變,而實為抒情「傳統」重要的「現代」個案。本文認為易順鼎與生俱來的早慧靈心,使他感知到時代將變的末世氛圍,因之他只能以哭泣來回應這種「若創巨痛深之在體」的感受,早年即有幽臲鬼語之作,堪稱末世詩讖,抒情異化成為一曲穠豔哀歌。而五上公車不售,繼而國變、母喪,激起他內在的死亡欲力,表現在乙未墨絰從戎之舉,而古中國原有的般若空寂,已經無法安頓他的靈魂,他的詩歌不免呈現刺怒相尋的變風、變雅之作。易鼎改元之後,在時代風會與詩歌神思的激盪下,以「舊人物而入新世界」,他創作出具有抒情靈視的七古歌行,總結了舊時代的風華,回應了對新世界的思考─那是愛與死結合所長養出的「惡之華」。不過,這個世界已無舊派文人施展的空間,詩歌失去安頓的力量(或者止於安頓),滿溢抒情異響,而國變釋放了內在原欲,生命呈現一種自毀傾向,他愈見頹唐,只能在「假得十分真」的梨園戲場裡,尋求一種可感的真實,直至「才盡」,方復歸於最後的「平靜」。
Yi Shun-ding's life spanned from late Qing Dynasty to early Republic of China, and was mentioned in the works of literary history by Qian Jibo, Wang Bijiang, Qian Zhonglian, etc. He was called a child prodigy, a gifted man, a renowned scholar and a madman. He claimed to be a "Ku An" (crying man), an alcoholic, a living dead man and "Jia Baoyu." Yi Shun-ding wrote many poems quickly. His poetic styles varied and ranged from antithetical couplets, linked verses to heptasyllabic ancient-style verses. He demonstrated the multi-faceted characteristics of lyrical self in his poetry during the tumultuous time. There were also breakthroughs in his poetic form, which could be regarded as an important "modern" case of lyrical "tradition." Yi Shun-ding displayed wisdom at an early age, which enabled him to sense that the end of the age was imminent. The only way he could respond to the deep pain caused by this perception, which paralleled extreme physical agony, was to cry. Even in his early years, he wrote poems that could be considered end-time prophecies. His lyrical poetry dissimilated into songs of grief and despair. Five failed attempts to become Jinshi, immediately followed by the outbreak of Sino-Japanese War and the loss of his mother, led to his feelings of despair. The act of enlisting during the mourning period for his mother in the year of Yiwei stemmed from his desire to die. The conventional wisdom of ancient China could no longer settle his soul, this sentiment was reflected in his poems, which encapsulated the phrase "changed airs, changed odes" (bian feng, bian ya). After the Republic of China was founded, he was profoundly affected by the atmosphere of the time, which awakened a mysterious sense of creativity. He wrote lyrical poetry in the heptasyllabic ancient style that evoked the elegance of the old era and at the same time reflected his view about the new world. Love and death culminated in "flowers of evil." However, at Yi's time, poetry in the older style was already considered to belong to a bygone era. Poetry had lost its power of settling one's soul, and instead overflew with alien noises. The country's demise released Yi Shun-ding's dark, primal desire. He went down the path of self-destruction, life increasingly became meaningless. Yi Shun-ding could only seek for a sense of reality from theatre performances, until his talent was exhausted and he was once again, at peace.
Relation: 政大中文學報, 31, 295-340
Data Type: article
DOI 連結: 10.30407/BDCL.201906_(31).0009
Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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