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Title: 東西之間:杜亞泉的文明論與倫理視域
Du Yaquan's Discourse on Civilization: Negotiating an Ethical Vision Between East and West
Authors: 楊芳燕
Yang, Fang-yen
Contributors: 政大中文學報
Keywords: 杜亞泉 ; 文明論 ; 東西二元論 ; 倫理視域 ; 社會主義 
Du Yaquan ; discourse on civilization ; the East-West binary ; ethical vision ; socialism
Date: 2019-12
Issue Date: 2020-10-12 09:54:59 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 19、20世紀之交,隨著西力入侵以及東亞地緣政治的變動,文明的交會與差異問題開始成為中國知識分子熱議的焦點。本文探討1900-1910年代杜亞泉(1873-1929)文明論的歷史生成,並嘗試說明他在東西文明的對照框架下,廣泛介入人類生活各個面向的繁多議題,所欲辯證的理想文明與人類生活究竟是何面貌。從分析觀點來看,杜氏的文明論可區分為三個向度:在宇宙進化的視野下探討文明進化的原理;文明的東西類型論;反思現代文明並構想未來新文明。第一向度構成另兩個向度的基礎,其內建的調和論思維並奠定整個文明論的基調。本文認為,杜氏的調和論思維乃傳統陰陽互濟觀念的現代延續,蘊含一種將理性與經驗、創造與因襲視為相即不二的理性觀。因此,他倡議的東西文明調和論並無法化約為認同政治的產物,而是結穴於特定的世界觀、歷史觀之內。它同時展現深刻的倫理關懷,直指普世性的價值選擇問題。正是立足於價值選擇的倫理思考,杜氏通過以特定方式形構而成的文明論,嘗試對抗中國自甲午戰敗以來,以「追求富強」為導向的思想路徑。由於他乃將這個路徑,連同甲午之戰與一戰,視為現代工業資本主義文明的內部問題,因此他的對抗實亦回應了現代世界的普遍性問題。另一方面,他亦通過東西文明的相互審視來構想20世紀新文明,以期實現心與物、人與人、人與世界的和諧統一。本文將說明杜氏文明論的批判意識,如何經由一種注重歷史延續性的理性原則的涵化,最終引導他走向漸進改良式的社會主義之路。
Around the turn of the 20^(th) century, as a result of the intrusion of Western powers and the ensuing changes of East Asian geopolitics, the problematiques of inter-civilizational encounters and differences began to capture the attention of many Chinese intellectuals. This article explores the historical formation of Du Yaquan's (1873-1929) discourse on civilization as it unfolded in the first two decades of the 20^(th) century. It also explains how, within the comparative framework between Eastern and Western civilizations, Du considered many topics on various aspects of human lives, and placed an emphasis on the ethical vision which informed his search for an ideal civilization and a new mode of human life. Analytically speaking, Du's discourse can be divided into three dimensions: an inquiry into the principles of civilizational evolution from a cosmic perspective; a typology of civilization predicated on the East-West binary and a reflection on the modern industrial capitalism and projection of a new civilization for the 20^(th) century. The first dimension constituted the foundation of the other two. It featured a harmonizing mode of thinking which also shaped the whole discourse. The article argues that Du's harmonizing mode of thinking was a modern variation of the traditional idea of yin-yang harmonization. It gave rise to a rationalist stance that assumed continuity between reason and experience, creation and carrying forward traditions. Consequently, Du advocated a theory of reconciling Eastern and Western civilizations in order to invent a new civilization for the 20^(th) century. As such, the theory could not be reduced to a product of identity politics, but had deep roots in a particular worldview and understanding of history. It also illustrated profound ethical issues concerning universal value and choices confronting the modern world. In the final analysis, at the core of Du's discourse was an ethical vision that posed a direct challenge against the predominant intellectual orientation geared toward the "search for wealth and power." Du considered this orientation, along with the Sino-Japanese War and the First World War, as problem integral to modern industrial capitalism. His challenge also constituted a response to certain prevailing problems of the modern world. On the other hand, Du compared and contrasted the Eastern and Western civilizations to envisage a new civilization for the 20^(th) century, with a view to restore harmonic unity between the human heart/mind and material objects, among the individuals in society, and between humans and the outer world. The article shows how Du's critical consciousness was subsumed under a rationalist principle of prudence which emphasized historical continuity, and thus paved his way toward a non-revolutionary transition to socialism.
Relation: 政大中文學報, 32, 229-280
Data Type: article
DOI 連結:
Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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