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Title: 從身體與世界的互動論漢字結構-梅洛龐蒂與胡塞爾現象學對漢字研究的啟示
Body-World Correlation and the Structure of the Chinese Script: Lessons from the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty and Husserl
Authors: 關子尹
Kwan, Tze-wan
Contributors: 政大中文學報
Keywords: 現象學 ; 身體圖式 ; 古文字 ; 《說文解字》部首 ; 純粹意義邏輯 
 phenomenology ; body schema ; archaic Chinese script ; Shuowen radicals ; pure logic of meaning
Date: 2020-06
Issue Date: 2020-10-12 09:55:06 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在《說文解字》(以下簡稱《說文》)中,許慎曾引用易傳「近取諸身,遠取諸物」一語,以說明漢字之來源。這一份對人的身體和對周遭事物的雙重重視,與現象學傳統對身體與吾人的生活世界的「相聯性」(Korrelation)的重視可謂不謀而合。在現象學傳統中,胡塞爾首開對身體(Leib)的討論,若論對身體現象與感知世界之間的微妙關係闡述之精微,則梅洛龐蒂更有過之。藉著對《說文》540部首的分析,我們不難發現,成千累萬意義極盡豐富的漢字所由出的「部首」的確可溯源於身體與外物這兩大類別(分別可再分為2+3=5小類)。藉著梅洛龐蒂的身體世界相聯性理論,加上他提出的一些重要概念工具(如「身體圖式」),我們更可說明,許多漢字的結構都和身體(或其部分)如何與其自身,或與他者的身體(或其部分),乃至與外物(無論是大自然諸現象、動物植物,或是人文器物建制)的互動有關。而反映這各種各式的身體與外物間的互動的漢字,乃構成種種關乎社會、環境、技術、經濟,政治、禮儀、乃至人文建制的意義內容。順著胡塞爾於第四「邏輯研究」中提出的「純粹意義邏輯」的建議,本文最後嘗試從身體─世界互動的角度,大膽地擬訂出漢字的一些「原始組合模式」,以說明漢字如何從部件開始,得以循各種組合方式孳乳浸多。
In the Shuowen, one of the earliest comprehensive character dictionaries of ancient China, when discussing where the Chinese characters derive their structural components from, Xu Shen proposed the dual constitutive principle of "adopting proximally from the human body, and distally from things around." This dual emphasis of "body" and "things around" corresponds largely to the emphasis on the "correlation" between the body or corporeality on the one hand, and lifeworld on the other, as discussed in the phenomenological tradition. In this tradition, Husserl was the one who first pronounced the importance of the body (Leib) in the constitution of meaning, but it was Merleau-Ponty who elaborated on the correlative intricacy of the human body (and its parts) with the world as perceived. Starting with a general survey of the cognitive aspects of the 540 radicals as recorded in the Shuowen, this paper shows that these radicals are indeed either body-related or world-related substantiating thus Xu Shen's claim. With the help of body-world correlative studies, including such useful models as "body schema", as proposed by Merleau-Monty, this paper looks into various examples of Chinese archaic script tokens to elaborate on how in the Chinese scripts the human body (and its parts) might interact in various ways with itself, with other's bodies (and their parts) or with "things around" (whether Mother Nature/natural phenomena, living creatures, or artefacts) to produce compound characters that cover the environmental, social, ritual, technical, economic, political and even intellectual aspects of human experience. Finally, by hooking upon the notion of a "pure logic of meaning" as proposed by Husserl in the fourth section of his Logical Investigations, this paper further endeavours to sort out a list of "primitive patterns of combinations" which might help demonstrate how the Chinese script, starting from the various body/world-related radicals might evolve into the whole repertoire of Chinese characters.
Relation: 政大中文學報, 33, 5-48
Data Type: article
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