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題名: 中國大陸在衝突預防上的立場、態度與作為:作為第三方與當事國之間的比較
China's Position, Attitude, and Action on Conflict Prevention: A Comparative Study on the Issue of the South China Sea and the South Sudan Crisis
作者: 趙文志
Chao, Wen-Chih
貢獻者: 問題與研究
關鍵詞: 中國大陸 ; 東協 ; 南海 ; 衝突預防 ; 南蘇丹 
 China ; ASEAN ; South China Sea ; Conflict Prevention ; South Sudan
日期: 2020-09
上傳時間: 2020-11-16 13:46:50 (UTC+8)
摘要: 本文主要研究問題是:中國大陸對於衝突預防的原則性立場與態度為何?在身為當事國與第三方行為者兩種不同身分時,其在實踐上有何不同?本文藉由南蘇丹危機與南海衝突兩個案例分析中國大陸在衝突預防實踐上,面對事關自身主權與國家利益以及與自身主權無關之衝突事件時,在衝突預防作為上有何差異?其宣示與實際作為有何落差?此外,為何中國大陸在南海議題上,會由堅持雙邊對話,轉變為也同意透過多邊機制,作為處理南海主權爭議途徑的立場與作為?在這樣的雙邊與多邊機制下,呈現出怎樣的「中國特色」衝突預防機制也是本文欲探討的研究問題。本文的主要研究發現,在南蘇丹案例上,中國大陸作為第三者身分時,透過聯合國為平台,以多邊形式介入南蘇丹衝突當中,同時透過所謂「創造性介入」的方式為不干涉內政原則找到介入他國的空間,進行相關衝突預防的作為;而在南海案例上,中國大陸雖然在國際衝突預防事件上,強調以聯合國維核心,以不干涉內政為原則,同時須透過多邊機制來進行衝突預防工作,但在面對關於自身核心利益時,由南海領土主權爭議的案例顯示,中國大陸卻採取不同的立場與作為。中國大陸更擴張性解釋傳統不干涉原則,強調南海領土爭議是雙邊問題,反對聯合國與國際組織的介入與仲裁,不希望南海問題國際化,這與其在聯合國立場並不太相符合。與此同時,中國大陸也強調願意以和平方式處理與解決南海爭端,並在東協架構下與東協討論南海行為準則。中國大陸這種反對多邊與國際化南海議題,卻又願意參與東協機制下對於南海議題討論的立場,則是由於東協運作機制以及對於預防外交的運作原則,與西方概念和實質內涵並不相同,其給予個別成員回應高度彈性,且達成共識之結論並不具強制性;再加上以國家為中心、主權至上的原則,讓中國大陸參與東協多邊機制,一方面不需擔心領土主權因此受到傷害,另一方面可以借助其影響力,在東協框架下,鞏固其主權與領土完整的目標。
The main research questions of the paper are as follow: first of all, what are China's position, attitude, and actions in conflict prevention, second question is what is the difference between China's action and statement on the issue of the South China Sea dispute and the South Sudan Crisis when China is one of the parties who faces sovereignty and national interest, and as a third-party in the practice of conflict prevention. Third question is why China is willing to change her position from insisting bilateral dialogue to agreeing to multilateral mechanism as an approach to deal with dispute between China and ASEAN states in the conflict of South China Sea. Final question is what does this "bilateral-multilateral" mixed approach reflect on what kind of "Chinese characteristic" in the conflict prevention mechanism. The main research findings are as follow: first of all, in the case of South Sudan, the Chinese government uses the UN as a core and platform to intervene in the South Sudan crisis with a multi-way and a creative model. The creative model gives the Chinese government space to intervene in the internal affairs of other countries to prevent crisis. Although China emphasizes the United Nations as a core and platform, as well as not intervening in the internal affairs of other countries as a principal through multilateral mechanism to prevent conflict, the Chinese government still takes different positions and perform actions to the sovereignty disputes in South China Sea when China faces conflict with the other states in her core national interest in this area. China stresses that this is a bilateral issue and opposes UN and international organization's intervention in the conflict of SCS. Besides, China expresses that she is willing to resolve the dispute peacefully and discusses the code of conduct on South China Sea under the framework of ASEAN. The contradiction of China’s position against internationalization in the SCS issue through multilateralism approach and discussion under ASEAN multi-operation mechanism is a result of concept difference, and is essentially a conflict prevention mechanism between west countries and ASEAN. Member states have high flexibility response to conclusion of the meeting and comply with the conclusion voluntarily, while stressing "state centrality" and "sovereignty first" under the ASEAN method. All these characteristics of the ASEAN method give China confidence to participate in the ASEAN multilateral mechanism without attention to the violation of China's territory and sovereignty, as well as they consolidate her goal of sovereignty and territory integrity with her interference in the framework of the ASEAN.
關聯: 問題與研究季刊, 59卷3期, 45-80
資料類型: article
DOI 連結: https://doi.org/10.30390/ISC.202009_59(3).0002
顯示於類別:[問題與研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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