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Title: 中國大陸森林認證政策轉變之分析:協力網絡觀點
The Analysis of Forest Certification Policy Change in China: A Collaborative Network Perspective
Authors: 謝儲鍵
Hsieh, Chu-Chien
Yen, Liang-Kung
Contributors: 中國大陸研究
Keywords: 協力網絡 ; 環境政策制定 ; 森林認證政策(FSC、PEFC、CFCC) ; 網絡治理 
Collaborative Network ; Environmental Policy-Making ; Forest Certification Policy (FSC, PEFC, CFCC) ; Network Governance
Date: 2020-03
Issue Date: 2020-11-17 16:32:57 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 近二十年來,中國大陸積極推動森林認證政策。儘管政府仍是主要的領導角色,但利害關係人在政策制定過程中也影響著動態的決策結果。本文應用協力網絡理論,探討森林認證場域中行動者角色與認證體系採用結果的相關性。本研究選定參與2012年第一次森林認證會議的36個組織,進行協力合作與網絡互動的問卷調查。分析發現,當行動者「權力分享」與「信任互惠」協力認同程度愈高,則在採用FSC體系時具有差異性;當行動者「權力分享」與「技術資源交換」協力程度愈高,則在採用PEFC體系具有顯著性。透過網絡分析,觀察到「國際組織」在2008年前占據網絡的「中心者」位置,而在2008年後被「公部門」取代。在「結構洞」網絡中,則是由「多元行動者」轉為「二元群體」分布,由政府及國際組織掌控資訊、資源傳遞的功能。國際組織最大的優勢在於掌握非正式的「信任網絡」而成為政策掮客。本研究認為中國大陸森林認證政策利害關係人之間的協力合作,主要建立在國際資源與國家威權的協商上,其協力途徑從「多元」轉為「雙核心」的制衡模式。
During the past two decades, the Chinese government has actively promoted the forest certification policy. Despite the government's leadership roles in the policy domain, stakeholders have gradually influenced dynamic decision-making in the development process. This paper applies theories of collaborative network to explore the correlation between the degrees of actors' collaboration and network roles and the results of the system adoption in the forest certification field. This study selected 36 organizations that participated in the first conference in 2012 to conduct surveys in collaboration and network interaction. The analyses found that when more of the actors agree to the collaboration of "power sharing" and "trust reciprocity", the result of FSC adoption is different, while when more of the actors agree to the collaboration of "power sharing" and "technical resource exchange", there is a difference in PEFC adoption. Through network analysis, we found that the "international organization" occupied the central position but was gradually replaced by the public sectors after 2008. In addition, in the "broker" network, it was a transition from a "multiple-actors" to a "dual-groups" state. The government and international organizations control the functions of information and resource transfer; however, the government gradually starts to take back the power-sharing and has become the center of collaborative networks. But, the strongest advantage for international organizations is for them to grasp the informal "trust network" among stakeholders from various groups transforming to policy brokers, and to shape a co-opetition relationship with the government. This study illustrates that the cooperation of China's forest certification is mainly based on the network of international resources and national authoritarianism, and that the collaborative model has changed from "diversity" to "dual-core" group. Finally, in addition to discussing the collaboration of stakeholders through "network analysis", this paper also supplements the arguments of horizontal cooperation and vertical relationship for its theoretical contribution.
Relation: 中國大陸研究, 63(1), 41-81
Data Type: article
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