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Title: 差序格局與政治穩定:論非正式制度裡的中共官員與私企主
The Strength of Strong Ties and Political Stability: The CCP's Response Towards Adaptive Informal Institutions
Authors: 楊穎超
Yang, Ying-Chao
Contributors: 中國大陸研究
Keywords: 私營企業主 ; 現代化理論 ; 關係 ; 官商關係 
 Private Entrepreneur ; Modernization Theory ; Guanxi ; State-Business Relations
Date: 2020-06
Issue Date: 2020-11-17 16:34:24 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文指出中共以非正式制度控制私企主群體。過去解釋私企主為何滿意中共統治,有認為中共以正式制度吸納控制私企主,並推出滿足雙方利益的政策。但此說無法建立私企常走在政策之前行動的因果關係;而認為私企主以非正式制度推動中共改變者,既未交代早期私企主買通官員合作的利從何來,也不能解釋長期以來中共不重視私企,使其平均壽命極短,私企主們卻仍繼續滿意中共統治現象。本文以2014∼2019年筆者主要在山東,輔以遼寧、江蘇、廣西、四川等省市所作之面訪資料為例,探索中共如何以非正式制度篩選私企主。訪談結果顯示,絕大多數私企主同意在中國大陸經商必須透過政府關係幫助,但在都找關係的前提下,圈子的存在使官員優先配置資源於自己人,使圈內人得以在市場競爭中獲得相對優勢而長期存活。對這些私企主來說,身處圈子使他們呈現出即便對政策不滿意,卻仍支持體制的矛盾態度。針對圈子的「軟」控制研究,使我們更能瞭解中共控制私企主的方式。
This article argues that the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) utilizes informal institutions to control entrepreneurs in the PRC. Scholars generally believe that the CCP satisfies entrepreneurs' interests. Some of them claim the CCP is made up of the young and the highly-educated businessmen, who make policies and organizations in order to channel interest articulation. But this claim does not take into account the fact that the state often follows entrepreneurs' actions. Other scholars contend that entrepreneurial interests are satisfied by the adaptive informal institutions that are formed with local officials. They do not explain that the life span of most enterprises in the PRC has been very short, and continues to become shorter. Nonetheless, the CCP still meets the needs of entrepreneurs. Through in-depth case-studies derived from fieldwork in different provinces, this paper comes to the conclusion that most entrepreneurs agree that guanxi (connection) with officials is helpful for running a business. However, under the premise that everybody needs guanxi, the existence of juan-zi (social circle) makes entrepreneurs in the closer circle obtain relative advantage that enables them to survive in the long term. These entrepreneurs are always in controversial situations where they support the regime to be a participant in the juan-zi, even though they are dissatisfied with the policies. As a result, we can better understand how the CCP controls entrepreneurs through studying this "soft" control style that is found throughout this paper.
Relation: 中國大陸研究, 63(2), 77-109
Data Type: article
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Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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