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On the Theorization of Indigenous Studies: Assessing the Implications of Post-Colonialism, Sinology
|Keywords:||原住民族 ; 後殖民主義 ; 華語語系 ; 台灣 ; 從屬學 |
Indigenous ; Post-colonialism ; Sinophone studies ; Taiwan ; Subaltern studies
|Issue Date:||2020-11-24 10:21:15 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||原民研究中適宜採用的文學或文化理論為何？從上個世紀以來，馬克思主義對勞工階級和經濟基礎建設的關懷，以及自由主義論述對個人自由的捍衛所帶來的種種影響，已經反映在學術界對於全球各地權利被剝奪的弱勢族群所遭遇之困境所產生的高度興趣上。此種改變不過是近三、四十年來西方學術界中，後現代主義和後殖民主義崛起成為主流分析理論這一過程所顯現的一個面向。雖然促成後現代和後殖民理論發展的歷史因素，與原民族群的歷史經驗和生存境況兩者間沒有直接的關聯，後殖民主義所關注的社會和政治現象，與原民研究所關懷的某些議題存在著若干的共同點。這點由從屬學研究（subaltern studies）的崛起尤其可見一斑，該研究學派由八○年代一群研究某一後殖民主義分支的印度學者所發展出來。如喬迪．伯德和麥可．羅斯博格（Jodi A. Byrd & Michael Rothberg）已經指出，原民族群同樣被放逐於社會底層。而從屬學研究，一如原民學研究，廣泛地關注權利被剝奪的群體所置身的經濟、社會和政治處境。由於這個原因，縱使矛盾無法避免，依然有許多的理由支持以從屬學研究理論來研究分析原民研究脈絡中的種種議題。在台灣，由於原民長期生活於漢族殖民者的控制下，華語成為原民投身學術主流時所選擇的語言，原民群體所使用的日常語言，無論是富有創意的修辭或是知識論述，皆無可避免的受到華語語境的支配。然而，我們也藉著指出原民對華語使用的支配性被若干原民作家策略性翻轉的事實，本文試圖由華語研究中的脈絡出發來探討原民研究的理論化這一議題，也嘗試提出一些可能的發展方向。我們提問是否能使理論原則仍在發展中的後殖民研究和華語研究，與原民研究做結合來一同挑戰歐美中心主義和漢語中心主義，並發展出一套嶄新的方法來處理原民議題。|
Beginning in the last century, the influence of Marxist concern for the proletariat and economic infrastructure, as well as Liberalism's discourse on the protection of individual freedom have made their presence felt in heightened academic interest in the plight of disenfranchised groups around the world. This is but one aspect of the process by which post-modernism and post-colonialism have become the most popular analytical theories in Western academe over the past in the past three to four decades. Although there is no direct connection between the historical factors contributing to the development of post-modern and post-colonial theory on the one hand, and the historical experience and lived conditions of Indigenous peoples on the other, the social and political phenomena with which post-colonialism concerns itself share a number of common points of interest with those issues of interest to Indigenous studies. This is especially so with the rise of subaltern studies, a branch of post-colonial studies developed among a group of Indian scholars in the 1980s. As Jodi A. Byrd and Michael Rothberg have pointed out, Indigenous people have also been relegated to subaltern situations. Since subaltern studies, like Indigenous studies, deals extensively with economic, social and political situation of disenfranchised peoples, it has much relevance in the study of the present condition of Indigenous peoples. For this reason, although contradictions cannot be avoided, there are numerous reasons why subaltern theory is appropriately applied to the analysis of issues within the context of Indigenous studies. In Taiwan, due to the fact that Indigenous peoples have long lived under the control of Han (Chinese) settlers, their everyday language, whether it be the rhetoric of creative work or of intellectual discourse, has inevitably come to be dominated by the terms of Sinitic language. Thus, Sinophone language has become the choice of Indigenous peoples as they engage with the academic mainstream. What literary or cultural theories are appropriately applied in Indigenous studies? This paper attempts to approach the theorization of Indigenous studies from within the context of Sinophone studies, and to suggest some possible lines of development. We ask whether it is possible for post-colonial studies, and for Sinophone studies, the principles of which are just in the process of being established, to join hands with Indigenous studies in challenging Euro-American-centrism and Sinocentrism to develop an entirely new manner of dealing with Indigenous issues.
|Appears in Collections:||[Bulletin of Taiwanese Literature] Journal Articles|
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