Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/132816


Title: 冷戰及兩個中國:1950-1960年代韓國對「中國」與「中國文學」的認知與介紹
Cold War, Two Chinas, and acceptance of China and Chinese literature in 1950s and 60s Korea
Authors: 李奉範
Lee, Bong-Beom
林筱慈
Lin, Xiao-Ci
Contributors: 臺灣文學學報
Keywords: 冷戰 ; 台灣 ; 共產中國 ; 冷戰對外政策 ; APACL(亞洲人民反共聯盟) ; ASPAC(亞太協議會) ; 藝術團 ; 檢閱 ; 中國文學史 
Cold War ; Taiwan ; Red China ; Foreign Policy in the Cold War ; APACL (Asian Peoples Anti Communist League) ; ASPAC(Asian and Pacific Council) ; art delegation ; censorship ; history of China literature
Date: 2020-06
Issue Date: 2020-11-24 10:22:24 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 冷戰時期結束後,與台灣斷交(1992年8月23日),進而與中國建交(1992年8月24日)等外交關係上的變化對於韓國的中國認知有極重大的影響。此時期,韓國對於中國文學的介紹與翻譯開始蓬勃發展,涵蓋了中共與台灣文學作品的「中國文學」得以恢復原貌。然而,早在這之前,韓國對於中國的認知與翻譯中國文學的歷史是相當曲折的。一直以來韓國學界大多以「台灣(接受)/中共(排除)」的二元框架來說明,冷戰期間韓國對「中國」與「中國文學」的認知與介紹。然而,從當時韓國知識分子對毛澤東思想的關心程度,可以證明所謂的二元框架─「台灣(接受)/中共(排除)」並不足以說明其中存在的許多複雜層面。五○到六○年代,韓國對於台灣與中共的接觸與理解基本上都是在「冷戰亞洲」的框架下進行的。在這樣的框架下,韓國與台灣對中國的認知其實與其各自對東亞各國,特別是對日本看法與理解相關。從大脈絡來看的話,其實是因為美國的亞太地區統合戰略造成韓國對中國的認知與理解畸形化。同時期,韓國大多是藉由美國的研究與評論、情報等來量產有關中共的種種談論。其中,大多是將焦點放在揭露中共的暴政等與事實不符的觀察。然而,六○年代以後,韓國對中國的理解開始有所轉變。516軍事政變後,朴正熙政權在「重視亞洲」的冷戰外交策略的後援之下,推動了所謂的「知己知彼的中共研究」。然而,在這之中,其實暗藏了韓、美之間的利益糾葛以及韓國引進美國現代化理論等學術問題。此時期,韓國對於台灣的定義維持「自由友邦」的基調,只是對於台灣的關心轉往經濟層面,將焦點集中在台灣的現代化問題上。因為嚴苛的查禁制度以及韓國大學教育的衰微,相較於其他外國文學,五○到六○年代的中國文學的翻譯樣貌相當的畸形化。在韓國出版的兩百本世界文學全集之中只有四本中國文學,而這四本中國文學收錄的不是前近代時期中國古典文學就是台灣作家的作品。也就是說,五○到六○年代韓國雖然逐年增加對中國文學的翻譯、介紹,但所謂的「中國文學」卻只局限於前近代的中國古典文學與台灣的戰後文學等當時屬於台灣、中共文壇的邊緣文學。
After the end of the Cold War, Korean government broke diplomatic relations with Taiwan and established diplomatic relations with Communist China. These actions transformed Koreans' attitude toward China fundamentally. Behind these turn, there is a difficult history of acceptance of Chinese literature in Cold War Korea. It is a good example that the acceptance of Cao Yu's "Thunderstorm" in Cold War Korea. Korean approaches to china and acceptance of Chinese literature in Cold War period can't be just characterized by a binary structure: selecting Taiwan and excluding Communist China. As Korean intellectuals' continued interest in Mao Zedong shows, what is officially considered excluded had promoted another way to understand China. In 1950s and 60s Korea, relationship with two Chinas was promoted or, conversely, limited by Korean governments' Cold War controls and diplomatic policies. It was foundations of Asian People's Anti-Communist League (APACL) in 1954 and Asian and Pacific Council (ASPAC) in 1966 that materialized Korean governments' Korean-led Asian regional initiative. Though these organizations couldn't be military alliance such as NATO because it would conflict American East Asian policies, it promoted paradoxically Korean cultural exchanges and cooperations with other Asian countries. In 1950s, Cultural exchanges between Korea and Taiwan were mostly taken in form of goodwill missions' Southeast Asia tour held by APACL, these tours are nothing but a ideological solidarity based on Anti-communism and dictatorship. Korean journalism's discussions on Communist China also followed Cold War antagonism because their sources was very limited and depended on American materials. However, It began a new phase of Korean approach to China in the 1960s. As détente mood has arrived and Park's Administration began to implement a more Asia-conscious foreign policies, it improved that studies of Communism and Modernization in Asia, especially Communist China. While American private foundations including Ford and Asia Foundations assist the development of international cold war networks, it became to broaden transnationally that area of study on Communist China. Koreans' main interest about Taiwan was shifted from cultural issues to economic issues, focusing issues of Modernization in Taiwan. These changes on way to understand Two Chinas also work translating and accepting of Chinese literature. There are very little Chinese works in world literature anthologies in the late 1950s, and it were just traditional Chinese literature or Taiwanese writers' works in them. Koreans didn't think that Chinese literature have significant for world literature a whole. However, Chinese literature is second only to Anglo-American works in the number of translations, most of them included traditional Chinese literature, Taiwanese wuxia fictions, and some of Taiwanese post-war literature. Many of those translations are the excluded works in both Communist China and Taiwan. In 1950s and 60s, Korean translations and acceptance of foreign literature were generally controlled by Cold War censorship, as well as its lack of academical and journalistic infrastructures: related department in high education system, scholarly societies, and academic journals. In 1960s, Lin Yutang's and Lu Xun's works were accepted as ideological and cultural materials which support Cold War Anti-communism. Besides Chinese literature were inevitably translated and got acceptation in Cold War context, a series of histories of Chinese literature were steadily published. These works have merits as systemic approach, but generally give Taiwanese literature legitimacy as a successor to Chinese modern literature. It also shows that the boundaries of Korean understanding Two Chinas was limited by Cold War.
Relation: 臺灣文學學報,36, 137-163
Data Type: article
DOI 連結: https://doi.org/10.30381/BTL.202006_(36).0005
Appears in Collections:[臺灣文學學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
11.pdf2568KbAdobe PDF38View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing