Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/133980


Title: 具有兒時逆境經驗的成年個案接受情緒焦點治療經驗之研究
The Experiences of Adult Clients with Adverse Childhood Experiences in Emotion-Focused Therapy
Authors: 吳柏瑩
Wu, Po-Ying
Contributors: 陳婉真
吳柏瑩
Wu, Po-Ying
Keywords: 兒時逆境經驗
情緒焦點治療
Adverse childhood experience
Emotion-focused therapy
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2021-02-01 14:30:56 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究旨在以具有兒時逆境經驗之個案的角度,瞭解其在接受情緒焦點治療時的經驗、感受與想法,並讓相關實務工作者有機會理解,具有兒時逆境經驗之個案在情緒焦 點治療中的治療關係與情緒經驗,進而對諮商實務工作有更深的反思與修正。因此本研究問題聚焦在:一、在情緒焦點治療中,治療關係所提供的情緒矯正性經驗對具有兒時逆境經驗的個案的影響為何?二、在情緒焦點治療當中,具有兒時逆境經驗的個案的情緒歷程為何?
本研究以立意抽樣,招募兩位兩位具有兒時逆境經驗的個案,以主題分析法與發現式取向做為資料處理與分析方法。研究結果共以兩個部份呈現:
一、治療關係的情緒矯正性經驗效果:包括(一)諮商關係提供傾吐的安全環境、(二)諮商關係協助壓力抒發與緩解、(三)諮商關係促進情緒調適 、(四)諮商關係賦能個案。
二、個案的情緒歷程:(一)到達情緒:包含了四個步驟,分別為促進情緒覺察、促進對情緒的接受與肯定、情緒的具體化與形象化,以及辨識主要情緒。(二)離開或轉化情緒:包含了四個步驟,分別為辨識出非適應性情緒中的想法、藉由主要情緒找出需求、促進替代性情緒的發展、以及發展新的對話或故事。
文末,研究者針對此研究結果進行綜合討論,並提出對於未來研究以及心理師實務工作的相關建議。
The study aims at understanding the experiences of adults clients with adverse childhood experiences in emotion-focused therapy by exploring the therapeutic relationship and emotional experiences. The study focuses on two questions: (a) What are the emotional experiences based on therapeutic relationships that clients with adverse childhood experiences have in emotion-focused therapy? (b) How is the emotional process of clients with adverse childhood experiences in emotion-focused therapy?
The purposive sampling was used to recruit 2 clients with adverse childhood experiences. Data were analyzed examined through thematic analysis and discovery-oriented research. The findings are as follows:
I. Emotional experiences based on therapeutic relationships
(a) Therapeutic relationships provide safe environment to talk
(b) Therapeutic relationships facilitate stress release and reduction
(c) Therapeutic relationships promote emotion regulation
(d) Therapeutic relationships empower clients
II. Emotional process
(a) Arriving emotions: promote awareness of emotions, facilitating a welcoming and acceptance of emotional experience, promote putting emotions into words, and identify the client’s primary experience.
(b) Leaving/transforming emotions: identify the destructive beliefs or views attached to the maladaptive emotion, facilitate reowning of need, facilitate access to alternate adaptive emotions, facilitate the development of a new narrative.
The results of this study were discussed. Directions for future research and suggestions for counseling professionals were also proposed.
Reference: 王秀美、范幸玲(2015)。一位家暴受虐兒復原力的人格特質與自覺的諮商效益。中華輔導與諮商學報,43,61-94。doi: 10.7082/CJGC。
田美惠(2004)。完形技術(雙椅法)-創造內在自我對話的空間。諮商與輔導,222,15-19。doi: 10.29837/CG.200406.0002。
甘桂安、楊秀宜(2008)。情緒焦點治療在婚姻諮商中的應用。諮商與輔導,267,29-33。doi: 10.29837/CG.200803.0011。
李自強(2013)。家庭暴力的代間傳遞:一位觸法少年的個案分享。亞洲家庭暴力與性侵害期刊,9(2),121-136。 doi: 10.29804/AJDVSO。
沈瓊桃(2010)。暴力的童年、堅韌的青年:目睹婚暴暨受虐青年復原力之探討。中華輔導與諮商學報,27,115-160。 doi: 10.7082/CJGC.201003.0115。
宋宥賢(2015)。重拾失落的笑靨:兒童虐待心理治療處遇與成效之探究。台灣心理諮商季刊,7(1),12-39。
林佩儀(2004)。兒童虐待成因探討。諮商與輔導,220,2-9。doi: 10.29837/CG.200404.0002。
林俐君(2005)。走過傷痕歲月~亂倫受虐兒童受虐經歷初探(未出版碩士論文)。國立臺灣大學,台北市。
林怡君(2006)。放掉頭腦,讓心引路-完形諮商的情緒覺察、經驗與表達。諮商與輔導,250,8-21。doi: 10.29837/CG.200610.0008。
林杏足、李華璋、釋宗白、姜兆眉(2009)。性侵害倖存者的敘事治療歷程分析-以安置機構少女為例。家庭暴力與性侵害防治實務工作研討會。
林峯儀、鄭群達(2015)。情傷經驗者未竟事務於完形取向諮商空椅技術之探討。諮商與輔導,360,43-46。doi: 10.29837/CG。
吳永裕(1995)。單親兒童之親子關係、行為困擾與學習適應研究(未出版碩士論文)。國立臺北教育大學國民教育研究所,台北市。
吳佩妤、譚子文、董旭英(2012)。家庭暴力經驗、復原力與台南市都會區國中生自我傷害行為之關聯性研究。青少年犯罪防治研究期刊,4(2),69-107。doi: 10.29751/JRDP.201212.0003。
吳麗娟、蔡秀玲、杜淑芬、方格正、鄧文章(譯)(2017)。人際歷程取向治療:整合模式。台北市:雙葉書廊。
卓紋君、廖文如(2004)。從生態系統觀點看兒童虐待與救治之道—一個兒虐案例的分析。諮商與輔導,220,10-17。 doi: 10.29837/CG.200404.0003。
周怡宏(2006)。兒童虐待與疏忽的兒科醫師觀點。領導護理,7(2),11-27。 doi: 10.29494/LN.200612.0002。
周新富(2019)。輔導原理與實務。台北市:五南圖書出版股份有限公司。
紀琍琍、紀櫻珍、吳振龍(2007)。兒童虐待及防治。北市醫學雜誌, 4(7),531-540。doi: 10.6200/TCMJ.2007.4.7.03。
洪素珍、呂旭亞、黃宗堅(2009)。台籍前慰安婦戲劇治療團體在情緒創傷處理之初探。台灣藝術治療學刊,1(2),59-77。doi: 10.29761/JTAT.200908.0005。
凌明琪(2009)。家庭暴力及其對青少年犯罪的影響。喀什師範學院學報, 30(5),38-41。
高淑清(2001)。在美華人留學生太太的生活世界:詮釋與反思。本土心理學研究,16,225-285。doi: 10.6254/2001.16.225。
高紅梅(2017)。家暴受虐兒的復原力之探討。諮商與輔導,376,20-23。doi:10.29837/CG
孫頌賢、修慧蘭(2005)。親子肢體暴力與大學生約會暴力行為之關係--尋找代間傳遞中的危機與轉機。教育與心理研究,28(2),267-296。
孫頌賢、李宜玫(2009)。暴力的代間傳遞:原生家庭暴力經驗與依戀系統對大學生約會暴力行爲的預測比較。家庭教育與諮商學刊,7,23-43。 doi: 10.6472/JFEC.200912.0023。
張家恩(2019)。以女性主義諮商觀點探討兒時目睹家暴之成年女性。諮商與輔導,403,50-52。
張心怡、馮瑞鶯、曾仁美(2018)。兒童身體虐待倖存者之療癒歷程—破土而生,迂迴成長。護理雜誌,65(3),47-57。doi: 10.6224/JN.201806_65(3).08。
陳慧女、廖鳳池(2006)。家庭內性侵害受害者之性受害經驗、適應症狀與諮商介入情形之分析研究。諮商輔導學報:高師輔導所刊,14,102-139。
陳秉華(1996)。諮商中大學生的心理分離-個體化沖突改變歷程研究。教育心理學報,28,145-175。doi: 10.6251/BEP.19960901.6。
陳金定(2005)。心理治療改變之機轉-情緒歷程的完成與情緒基模的重組。輔導季刊,41(4),8-20。doi: 10.29742/GQ.200512.0002。
曾素梅(2004)。個人式心理劇中「空椅」與「鏡照」技巧的轉化與運用。諮商與輔導,222,13-14。doi: 10.29837/CG.200406.0001。
黃雅羚、戴嘉南(2011)。受性侵害兒童心理創傷內涵之分析研究。諮商輔導學報:高師輔導所刊,23,53-74。doi: 10.6308/JCG.23.03。
蔡惠貞(2019)。兒童中心團體遊戲治療對兒童為自殺者遺族之應用。諮商與輔導,389,21-24。
蔡雅芬(2014)。遭受家庭暴力的青少年之特徵、系統觀點與輔導策略。諮商與輔導,342,47-49。
蔡麗芳、洪家慧(2013)。遊戲治療中目睹家庭暴力兒童的家庭暴力認知與行為問題改變情形之個案研究。台灣遊戲治療學報,3,113-138。doi: 10.6139/JTPT.2012.3.9。
戴谷霖、陳慶福、黃素雲(2014)。兒時目睹家暴之受暴婦女在諮商中所知覺重要事件之研究。教育心理學報,45(3),367-391。doi: 10.6251/BEP.20130701。
謝碧玲、黃意茜、劉威麟、李昆樺、吳相儀、陳正生(2017)。創造心理彈性與情緒調節策略、心理困擾之相關:比較高雄氣爆後低心理受創與高心理受創民眾為例。創造學刊,8(1),65-77。
簡美華(2008)。回首來時路:成年女性因應兒時性侵害經驗之策略及其轉變因素。中華輔導與諮商學報,23,81-116。 doi: 10.7082/CJGC.200803.0081。

Anda, R. F., Butchart, A., Felitti, V. J., & Brown, D. W. (2010). Building a framework for global surveillance of the public health implications of adverse childhood experiences. American journal of preventive medicine, 39(1), 93-98. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.03.015.
Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C., Perry, B. D., Giles, W. H. (2005). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256(3), 174-186. doi:10.1007/s00406-005-0624-4.
Anda, R. F., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Chapman, D., Edwards, V. J., Dube, S. R., & Williamson, D. F. (2002). Adverse childhood experiences, alcoholic parents, and later risk of alcoholism and depression. Psychiatric Services, 53(8), 1001-1009. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.53.8.1001.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Pieters, R. (1989). Goal-directed emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 12(1), 1-26. doi:10.1080/026999398379754.
Bechara, A., & Naqvi, N. (2004). Listening to your heart: interoceptive awareness as a gateway to feeling. Nature Neuroscience, 7(2), 102-103. doi:10.1038/nn0204-102.
Boullier, M., & Blair, M. (2018). Adverse childhood experiences. Paediatrics and Child Health, 28(3), 132-137. doi:10.1016/j.paed.2017.12.008.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.
Briere, J., Kaltman, S., & Green, B. L. (2008). Accumulated childhood trauma and symptom complexity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(2), 223-226. doi:10.1002/jts.20317.
Broad, R. D., & Wheeler, K. (2006). An adult with childhood medical trauma treated with psychoanalytic psychotherapy and EMDR: A case study. Perspectives In Psychiatric Care, 42(2), 95-105. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6163.2006.00058.x.
Brown, D. W., Anda, R. F., Edwards, V. J., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., & Giles, W. H. (2007). Adverse childhood experiences and childhood autobiographical memory disturbance. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(9), 961-969. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.02.011.
Chapman, D. P., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Edwards, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82(2), 217-225. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2003.12.013.
Chard, K. M. (2005). An evaluation of cognitive processing therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 965-971. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.73.5.965.
Cloitre, M., Stovall-McClough, K. C., Nooner, K., Zorbas, P., Cherry, S., Jackson, C. L., . . . Petkova, E. (2010). Treatment for PTSD related to childhood Abuse: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(8), 915-924. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09081247.
Dalton, E. J., Greenman, P. S., Classen, C. C., & Johnson, S. M. (2013). Nurturing connections in the aftermath of childhood trauma: A randomized controlled trial of emotionally focused couple therapy for female survivors of childhood abuse. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 2(3), 209-221. doi:10.1037/a0032772.
Davidson, R. J. (2000). Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: Brain mechanisms and plasticity. American Psychologist, 55(11), 1196-1214. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.11.1196.
Dong, M., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Williamson, D. F., Thompson, T. J., . . . Giles, W. H. (2004). The interrelatedness of multiple forms of childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. . Child Abuse & Neglect, 28(7), 771-784. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.01.008.
Dube, S. R., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Chapman, D. P., Williamson, D. F., & Giles, W. H. (2001). Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(24), 3089-3096. doi:10.1001/jama.286.24.3089.
Duke, N. N., Pettingell, S. L., McMorris, B. J., & Borowsky, I. W. (2010). Adolescent violence perpetration: Associations with multiple types of adverse childhood experiences. Pediatrics, 125(4), 778-786. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0597.
Edwards, V. J., Holden, G. W., Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2003). Relationship between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment and adult mental health in community respondents: Results from the adverse childhood experiences study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(8), 1453-1460. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.8.1453.
Erikson, E. H. (1994). Identity and the life cycle: WW Norton & Company.
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., . . . Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. Am J Prev Med. , 14(4), 245-258. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00017-8.
Foa, E. B., Rothbaum, B. O., Riggs, D. S., & Murdock, T. B. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: A comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(5), 715-723. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.59.5.715.
Foa, E. B., Zoellner, L. A., Feeny, N. C., Hembree, E. A., & Alvarez-Conrad, J. (2002). Does imaginal exposure exacerbate PTSD symptoms? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(4), 1022-1028. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.4.1022.
Fox, S. E., Levitt, P., & Nelson III, C. A. (2010). How the timing and quality of early experiences influence the development of brain architecture. Child Development, 81(1), 2840. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01380.x.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218-226. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.56.3.218.
Frewen, P. A., Dozois, D. J. A., Neufeld, R. W. J., & Lanius, R. A. (2012). Disturbances of emotional awareness and expression in posttraumatic stress disorder: Meta-mood, emotion regulation, mindfulness, and interference of emotional expressiveness. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(2), 152-161. doi:10.1037/a0023114.
Frijda, N. H., Kuipers, P., & ter Schure, E. (1989). Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(2), 212-228. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.57.2.212.
Gaston, L., Goldfried, M. R., Greenberg, L. S., Horvath, A. O., Raue, P. J., & Watson, J. (1995). The therapeutic alliance in psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and experiential therapies. . Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 5(1), 1-26. doi:10.1037/h0101170.
Greenberg, L. S. (1986). Change process research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(1), 4-9.
Greenberg, L. S. (1990). Emotion in psychotherapy: Guilford Press.
Greenberg, L. S. (2010). Emotion-focused therapy: A clinical synthesis. FOCUS, 8(1), 32-42. doi:10.1176/foc.8.1.foc32.
Greenberg, L. S. (2015). Emotion-focused therapy: Coaching clients to work through their feelings. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
Greenberg, L. S., Auszra, L., & Herrmann, I. R. (2007). The relationship between emotional productivity, emotional arousal, and outcome in experiential therapy of depression. Psychotherapy Research, 17, 482-493.
Greenberg, L. S., & Elliott, R. (2012). Corrective experience from a humanistic–experiential perspective. In L. G. Castonguay & C. E. Hill (Eds.), Transformation in psychotherapy: Corrective experiences across cognitive behavioral, humanistic, and psychodynamic approaches (pp. 85-101). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
Greenberg, L. S., & Malcolm, W. (2002). Resolving unfinished business: Relating process to outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(2), 406-416. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.70.2.406.
Greenberg, L. S., & Newman, F. L. (1996). An Approach to Psychotherapy Change Process Research: Introduction to the Special Section. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(3), 435-438.
Greenberg, L. S., & Paivio, S. C. (2003). Working with emotions in psychotherapy: Guilford Press.
Greenberg, L. S., & Pascual-Leone, J. (1999). Emotion in the creation of personal meaning. In M. J. Power & C. R. Brewin (Eds.), The transformation of meaning in psychological therapies: Integrating theory and practice (pp. 157-173). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Greenberg, L. S., Rice, L. N., & Elliott, R. (1995). Facilitating emotional change: The moment-by-moment process. New York: Guilford Press.
Greenberg, L. S., & Safran, J. D. (1989). Emotion in psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 44(1), 19-29. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.44.1.19.
Grossman, F. K., Spinazzola, J., Zucker, M., & Hopper, E. (2017). Treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect: A new framework. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(1), 86-93.
Heim, C., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2001). The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry, 49(12), 1023-1039. doi:10.1016/s0006-3223(01)01157-x.
Holowaty, K. A. M., & Paivio, S. C. (2012). Characteristics of client-identified helpful events in emotion-focused therapy for child abuse trauma. Psychotherapy Research, 22(1), 56-66. doi:10.1080/10503307.2011.622727.
Holowaty, K. A. M., & Paivio, S. C. (2012). Characteristics of client-identified helpful events in emotion-focused therapy for child abuse trauma. Psychotherapy Researchx, 22(1), 56-66. doi:10.1080/10503307.2011.622727.
Jaycox, L. H., Foa, E. B., & Morral, A. R. (1998). Influence of emotional engagement and habituation on exposure therapy for PTSD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(1), 185-192. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.1.185.
Krystal, H. (1978). Trauma and affects. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 33(1), 81-116. doi:10.1080/00797308.1978.11822973.
Langmuir, J. I., Kirsh, S. G., & Classen, C. C. (2012). A pilot study of body-oriented group psychotherapy: Adapting sensorimotor psychotherapy for the group treatment of trauma. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(2), 214-220. doi:10.1037/a0025588.
LeDoux, J. E. (1996). The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. New York, NY, US: Simon & Schuster.
Lieberman, M. D., Jarcho, J. M., Berman, S., Naliboff, B. D., Suyenobu, B. Y., Mandelkern, M., & Mayer, E. A. (2004). The neural correlates of placebo effects: a disruption account. NeuroImage, 22(1), 447-455. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.01.037.
Lyddon, W. J., Clay, A. L., & Sparks, C. L. (2001). Metaphor and change in counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 79(3), 269-274. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2001.tb01971.x.
Mahrer, A. R., & Boulet, D. B. (1999). How to do discovery‐oriented psychotherapy research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(12), 1481-1493.
Makkar, S. R., & Grisham, J. R. (2011). Social anxiety and the effects of negative self-imagery on emotion, cognition, and post-event processing. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(10), 654-664. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2011.07.004.
Mallinckrodt, B. (2010). The psychotherapy relationship as attachment: Evidence and implications. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27(2), 262-270. doi:10.1177/0265407509360905.
Martsolf, D. S., & Draucker, C. B. (2005). Psychotherapy approaches for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: an integrative review of outcomes research. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 26(8), 801-825.
Meinck, F., Cosma, A. P., Mikton, C., & Baban, A. (2017). Psychometric properties of the Adverse Childhood Experiences Abuse Short Form (ACE-ASF) among Romanian high school students. Child Abuse & Neglect(72), 326–337.
Menahem, S., & Love, M. (2003). Forgiveness in psychotherapy: The key to healing. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(8), 829-835. doi:10.1002/jclp.22018.
Mlotek, A. E., & Paivio, S. C. (2017). Emotion-focused therapy for complex trauma. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 16(3), 198-214. doi:10.1080/14779757.2017.1330704.
Mueller, M. K., & McCullough, L. (2017). Effects of equine-facilitated psychotherapy on post-traumatic stress symptoms in youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(4), 1164-1172. doi:10.1007/s10826-016-0648-6.
Murphy, A., Steele, M., Dube, S. R., Bate, J., Bonuck, K., Meissner, P., . . . Steele, H. (2014). Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): Implications for parent child relationships? Child Abuse & Neglect(38), 224-233.
Nadel, L., & Bohbot, V. (2001). Consolidation of memory. Hippocampus, 11(1), 56-60.
Nemeroff, C. B., Heim, C. M., Thase, M. E., Klein, D. N., Rush, A. J., Schatzberg, A. F., . . . Keller, M. B. (2003). Differential responses to psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic forms of major depression and childhood trauma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(24), 14293-14296. doi:10.1073/pnas.2336126100.
Paivio, S. C. (2013). Essential processes in emotion-focused therapy. Psychotherapy, 50(3), 341-345.
Paivio, S. C., Hall, I. E., Holowaty, K. A. M., Jellis, J. B., & Tran, N. (2001). Imaginal confrontation for resolving child abuse Iisues. Psychotherapy Research, 11(4), 433-453.
Paivio, S. C., Jarry, J. L., Chagigiorgis, H., Hall, I., & Ralston, M. (2010). Efficacy of two versions of emotion-focused therapy for resolving child abuse trauma. Psychotherapy Research, 20(3), 353-366.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
輔導與諮商碩士學位學程
1061720091
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1061720091
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[輔導與諮商碩士學位學程] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
009101.pdf1986KbAdobe PDF107View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing