政大學術集成


Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/134010


Title: 公民募資在台灣,2012-2019年:從文本分析看動員策略
Taiwan Civic Crowdfunding 2012-2019: A Textual Analysis of Mobilization Strategy
Authors: 張依萍
Chang, Yi-Ping
Contributors: 馮建三
Feng, Chien-San
張依萍
Chang, Yi-Ping
Keywords: 群眾募資
公民募資
政治參與
政治消費
連結式行動
Crowdfunding
Civic Crowdfunding
Public Participation
Political Consumerism
Connective Action
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-03-02 14:16:36 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究探討募資網站嘖嘖、flyingV於2012至2019年「公民募資」的發展。公民通過網路捐款響應他人的募資,是「政治參與行動」也是別具意圖的「政治消費行為」。本研究發現:「黨政趨向」類的專案表現在募資人次及金額最突出,此類的訴求文宣,多與兩岸政治、罷免投票、環保有關,然而公民募資做為政治參與或有進步內涵的「政治消費」,其論述情境卻多與藍綠之爭、地緣政治有關。而募資發起方的行動召喚策略:直指「台灣認同」,且刻意淡化組織角色,突顯個別公民的倡議身份;其文本傾向使用「我們、年輕人、草根族」召喚捐款人,並以「否定」語境如反國民黨(59%)、反大陸政權(23%)為號召。公民募資看似是由下而上的改革力量,但研究顯示,推進募資動能策略,主要發揮在身份認同的議題,捐款人不可忽略隱藏在政治消費行為背後的政黨化意識形態。
This study explores the development of "Civic Crowdfunding" from 2012 to 2019 on zaczac and flyingV websites. The citizen behavior of online donation is a way of political participation as well as well-intended political consumption. This study found that the category of "Party-Politics Induced Projects" are the most outstanding in donations of person times and total amount, and such requests are mostly related to cross-strait politics, recall voting, and environmental issues. However, civic crowdfunding practices on behalf of political participation and progress-oriented political consumption, its discourse seems to related with the KMT & DPP party competition, or geopolitics. On the other hand, the call-to-action strategy is straightforward to "Taiwan Recognition". Especially most of the fundraisers deliberately downplay the role of the organization, and set their identity as "Individual Citizens ". Its text aims to use "we, young people, and the grassroots" to distinguish the "Self" for recruiting donors. Meanwhile, the text presents "The Other" position of anti-KMT (59%) and anti-CCP (23%). Civic crowdfunding seems to be a bottom-up reform force; however, research shows that the promotion of fund-raising strategies mainly occurs on issues of self-identity. The donors should not ignore that political ideologies follow by the fundraisers behind the political consumerism.
Reference: BBC(2019年 12月 10日)。〈美麗島事件40週年:盤點重要政治人物參與見證台灣民主化〉,《BBC中文》。取自https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/world-50726110
flyingV團隊、經濟日報記者群(2014)。《flyingV我挺,你做得到!群眾募資,30個成功個案的15個關鍵祕訣》。台北:經濟日報。
大紀元(2014年4月15日)。〈厭倦藍綠第三勢力展翅 選制不利小黨 學者:挑戰仍大〉,《大紀元》。取自https://reurl.cc/GV4jmp
天下雜誌(2014年7月23日)。〈林弘全:群眾募資,就是「標會 2.0」〉,《天下雜誌》。取自https://www.cw.com.tw/article/5069495
孔令信(2016)。〈318學運帶動的媒體革命--夾腳拖與iPad網路直播模式的反思〉,《傳播研究與實踐》,6(1): 229-250。
孔慶民、梁修慶、張正(2018)。〈社交商務中的政治消費研究:動機與行爲形態〉,《山東財經大學學報》,1: 52-65。
王笙(2015)。《從台灣群眾募資專案探討其資源差異現況與競爭策略》。師範大學大眾傳播研究所碩士論文。
王擎天(2016)。《眾籌:無所不籌,夢想落地》。台北:采舍。
台灣網路資訊中心(2019)。《2019台灣網路報告》。取自https://report.twnic.tw/2019/assets/download/TWNIC_TaiwanInternetReport_2019_CH.pdf
史安斌、楊雲康譯(2013)。〈連結性行動的邏輯:數字媒體和個人化的抗爭性政治〉。《傳播與社會學刊》,26: 211-245。(原文 Bennett, W. L., & Segerberg, A. [2012]. The Logic of Connective Action: Digital media and the personaliza¬tion of contentious politics. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5), 739-768.)
朱致宜(2014年4月9日)。〈網路學運力量大 四小時募資六五九萬元奇蹟 新科技 政府最頭痛的社運對手 〉,《財訊》。取自https://www.wealth.com.tw/home/articles/2105
吳乃德(1996)。〈自由主義和族群認同:搜尋台灣民族主義的意識形態基礎〉,《台灣政治學刊》, 1: 5-39。
李愛玲(2013)。〈群眾集資與櫃買中心 「創意集資資訊揭露專區」〉,《證券櫃檯》,166: 10-17。
沈有忠(2012)。〈2012 年後的臺灣政治生態與兩岸關係〉,《展望與探索》,10(11) : 84-102。
周怡孜(2015年6月6日)。〈30萬元經費去向不明 沃草、1985解除柳林瑋職務〉,《風傳媒》。取自https://www.storm.mg/article/52200
周俊利(2013)。〈從募資方式看中國古代民衆捐獻動因〉,《西南大學學報》,39(3): 142-146。
林文里(2015)。〈社會企業之籌資方式〉,《全國律師》,19(9): 53-61。
林秀英、陳勇志(2013)。〈圓夢推手的理想與現實--群眾募資平臺的發展現況與挑戰課題〉,《臺灣經濟研究月刊》,36(3): 98-105。
林怡廷(2020年3月6日)。〈站在反共和親中的十字路口,國民黨如何面對內部的「中國因素」?〉,《報導者》。 取自https://www.twreporter.org/a/kmt-china-relationship-crossroad
林信男(2020年6月6日)。〈罷韓成功韓國瑜罷免案正式通過,「同意票」飆破93萬張大關〉,《今周刊》。取自https://www.businesstoday.com.tw/article/category/80392/post/202006060006/罷韓成功》韓國瑜罷免案正式通過%E3%80%80「同意票」飆破93萬張大關
林倖妃(2019年12月30日)〈天下2020獨家國情調查:五成六民眾不滿經濟,但對台灣樂觀者首度超過悲觀〉,《天下雜誌》。取自https://www.cw.com.tw/article/5098352
林雅燕(2014)。〈新興募資方式--群眾募資行為之初探〉,《經濟研究》,14: 152-172。
邱鈺婷(2012)。《台灣民眾對於核能發電態度與其政黨傾向關聯性之探討》。中興大學應用經濟研究所碩士論文。
俞振華(2020年1月22日)。〈國民黨如何從2018的大勝到2020大敗〉,《奔騰思潮》, 取自https://www.lepenseur.com.tw/article/251
俞振華、翁定暐(2017)。〈影響台灣民眾政治參與的因素: 從公民規範認知的觀點出發〉,《調查研究-方法與應用》,38: 9-56。
倪炎元(2017)。〈2014 年台灣太陽花學運中的官方論述策略〉,《傳播與社會學刊》,42: 23-57。
倪炎元(2018)。《論述研究與傳播議題分析》。台北:五南圖書。
唐佩君(2020年4月15日)。〈台灣廣告登紐時 世衛詳列13點回應〉,《中央社》。取自https://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/202004150012.aspx
唐維敏(1996)。《大眾傳播研究方法:質化取向》。台北:五南。
孫秀蕙、陳儀芬(2011)。《結構符號學與傳播文本:理論與研究實例》。台北:正中。
徐涵(2019年6月18日)。〈香港人眾籌數百萬使「反修例廣告」登上世界各地報章,你怎麼看?〉,《端傳媒》。取自https://theinitium.com/roundtable/20190628-roundtable-hk-petition-newspaper/
高啟仁(2014)。〈我國推動「創櫃板」與「群眾募資」之情形〉,《證券暨期貨月刊》,32: 5-14。
張又云(2015)。《社會文化活動使用群眾募資平台做為社會行銷工具之探討—以台灣flyingV為例》。銘傳大學傳播管理研究所碩士論文。
張世熒(2000)。〈利益團體影響政府決策之研究〉,《 中國行政評論》, 9(3):23-52。
張嘉玲(2016)。〈案以群分:大數據解析回饋型群眾募資成功關鍵要素〉,《臺灣經濟研究月刊》,39(2): 27-37。
張嘉玲(2019)。〈傳統產業的文藝變身--臺灣傳產如何透過群眾募資打造三品行銷及籌資〉,《臺灣經濟研究月刊》,42(11): 46-54。
張錦華(1997)。《公共領域、多文化主義、與傳播研究》。台北:正中。
曹景翔(2015)。〈全球群眾募資發展趨勢與臺灣因應策略〉,《產業與管理論壇》,17(3): 72-86。
莊佳穎(2014)。〈從政治消費文化觀點看當代台灣社會的民主參與和認同建構〉,《臺灣國際研究季刊》,10(1): 160-184。
許志明(2017)。〈網路「社會資本」與跨媒介敘事的運用--以「Flying V」線上募資案為例〉,《世新大學人文社會學報》,17: 1-48。
郭秋榮(2014)。〈美國群眾募資的快速崛起與啟示〉,《信用合作》,122: 21-37。
郭瓊俐(2020年4月21日)。〈「罷韓一役」民進黨中央態度模糊 背後暗藏這個的政治盤算〉,《財訊》。取自https://www.wealth.com.tw/home/articles/25242
陳佳宏(2015)。〈二二八事件與國民黨政府在臺權力之鞏固〉,《師大台灣史學報》,8: 27-64。
陳怡靜(2019年11月20日)。〈消費就是價值選擇──反送中運動如何改變香港人日常生活?〉,《報導者》。取自https://www.twreporter.org/a/hong-kong-extradition-law-value-identity-change-consumer-behavior
陳怡靜、張慧雯(2014年3月25日)。〈集資反服貿廣告 3小時就達陣〉,《自由時報》。取自https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/paper/764960
陳星(2019)。《臺灣民主化與政治變遷:政治衰退理論的觀點》。台北:崧燁文化。
陳慧如、陳誼珊(2016)。〈群眾募資模式探究:非營利組織案例分析〉,《經營管理論叢》,12(1): 1-14。
陶本和(2015年12月13日)。〈泛綠外圍組織參與辦辯論?沃草:被貼標籤,不公平〉,《ETtoday今日新聞網》。取自https://www.ettoday.net/news/20151223/617934.htm
陶振超(2017)。〈社交媒體的動員力量: 網絡機會模式之觀點〉,《新聞學研究》,131: 49-86。
彭懷恩(2002)。《政治傳播與溝通》。台北:風雲論壇。
游美惠(2000)。〈內容分析、文本分析與論述分析在社會研究的運用〉,《調查研究》,8: 5-42。
馮建三譯(2015)。《誤解網際網路》。巨流圖書公司。(原書 Curran, J., Fenton, N., & Freedman, D. [2012]. Misunderstanding the Internet. New York, NY: Routledge.)
黃士豪(2017)。〈誰要議題所有權?立法委員立法提案與議題所有權的建立〉,《臺灣民主季刊》,14(1): 1-51。
群眾觀點(2016)。〈台灣群眾募資報告,2015〉,《群眾觀點》。取自https://annual-report.crowdwatch.tw/2015
群眾觀點(2020)。〈台灣群眾募資報告,2019〉,《群眾觀點》。取自https://www.2019.report.crowdwatch.tw/
葉啓政(2002)。〈生產的政治經濟學到消費的文化經濟學:從階級做爲施爲機制的角度來考察〉,《臺灣社會學刊》,28: 153-200。
翟翾 (2014年4月8日)。〈服貿學運效應!「社運募資」平台順勢生〉,《TVBS》。取自news.tvbs.com.tw/politics/527243?from=Copy_content
趙婉淳(2019年12月27日)。〈陳麗娜要監委調查Wecare募資 嗆尹立勿閃躲〉,《中時電子報》。取自https://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20191227003389-260407?chdtv
劉揚銘、陳伯璿、胡舜詅、周昱璇(2016年2月1日)。〈解讀Ptt:台灣最有影響力的網路社群〉,《數位時代》。取自https://www.bnext.com.tw/article/38609/bn-2016-01-29-161210-178
鄭智維(2011)。《消費社會中時尚的拜物教性質》。政治大學社會學研究所碩士論文。
歷亞格艾、吳御曄(2014年3月25日)。〈反黑箱服貿廣告集資刊紐時 平台FlyingV挨罰5萬化〉,《ETtoday今日新聞網》。取自https://www.ettoday.net/news/20140325/338709.htm#ixzz6EHlNIjid
盧嵐蘭(2005)。《媒介消費:閱聽人與社會》。台北:揚智文化。
謝莉慧(2014年4月7日)。〈太陽花學運10日將退場 發表聲明全文〉,《新頭殼》。取自 https://newtalk.tw/news/view/2014-04-07/46106
Aitamurto, T. (2012). Crowdsourcing for democracy: A new era in policy-making. Crowdsourcing for Democracy: A new era in policy-making. Finland: Committee for the Future.
Arsel, Z., Bajde, D., Belk, R., Fisher, E., Marcoux, J. S., Otnes, C., & Özçağlar-Toulouse, N. (2011). Giving, Sharing, Consuming: Connecting Consumer Behaviors. Building connections, 39, 684-685.
Atkinson, L. (2012). Buying in to social change: How private consumption choices engender concern for the collective. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 644, 191-206.
Baek, Y. (2010). To buy or not to buy: who are political consumers? What do they think and how do they participate? Political Studies, 58(5),1065-1086.
Bang, H., & Halupka, M. (2019). Contentious connective action: A new kind of life-political association for problematizing how expert systems operate. Information, Communication & Society, 22(1), 89-104.
Bennett, W. L.(1998). The uncivic culture: Communication, identity, and the rise of lifestyle politics. Ithiel de Sola Pool Lecture, American Political Science Association. Political Science and Politics, 31, 41-61.
Bennett, W.L. (2003). Branded political communication: Lifestyle politics, logo campaigns, and the rise of global citizenshi. In The politics behind products, Edited by: Micheletti, M., Follesdal, A. and Stolle, D. 101–125. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
Bennett, W. L., & Segerberg, A. (2012). The logic of connective action: Digital media and the personalization of contentious politics. Information, communication & society, 15(5), 739-768.
Bennett, W. L., Segerberg, A., & Walker, S. (2014). Organization in the crowd: peer production in large-scale networked protests. Information, Communication & Society, 17(2), 232-260.
Berger, S. (2019). A behavior economic perspective to political consumerism. In Boström, M., Micheletti, M., & Oosterveer, P. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Consumerism (pp. 111-133). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Best, J., Neiss, S., Swart, R., Lambkin, A., & Raymond, S. (2013). Crowdfunding's potential for the developing world (No. 84000, pp. 1-103). The World Bank.
Bimber, B. (2014). Digital media in the Obama campaigns of 2008 and 2012: Adaptation to the personalized political communication environment. Journal of information technology & politics, 11(2), 130-150.
Blaseg, D., Schulze, C., & Skiera, B. (2020). Consumer Protection on Kickstarter. Marketing Science. 39(1), 211-233.
Boström, M., Micheletti, M., & Oosterveer, P. (2019). The Oxford Handbook of Political Consumerism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Brabham, D. C. (2009). Crowdsourcing the public participation process for planning projects. Planning Theory, 8(3), 242-262.
Brent, D. A., & Lorah, K. (2019). The economic geography of civic crowdfunding. Cities, 90, 122-130.
Brint, S. (2001). Gemeinschaft revisited: A critique and reconstruction of the community concept. Sociological theory, 19(1), 1-23.
Castellano, O. (2018). Why ‘Buycotting’ is The New Form of Political Activism. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@orge/why-buycott-is-the-new-form-of-political-activism-a85a746756e3
Charbit, C., & Desmoulins, G. (2017). Civic Crowdfunding: A collective option for local public goods? OECD Regional Development Working Papers, 2017(2), 1. Paris, France: OECD.
Chen, B. (2018). When elections become social movements: Emerging citizen-initiated campaigning in Taiwan, In S. Kiyohara, K. Maeshima, & D. Owen (Eds.), Internet Election Campaigns in the United States, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. New York, NY: Springer International Publishing.
Chen, F.Y., Wang, A., Wu, K.S. and Yeh, Y.Y. (2020/5/21). What Do Taiwan’s People Think About Their Relationship to China? The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2020/05/what-do-taiwans-people-think-about-their-relationship-to-china/
Copeland, L. (2014). Conceptualizing political consumerism: How citizenship norms differentiate boycotting from buycotting. Political studies, 62, 172-186.
Copeland, L. (2014a). Value Change and Political Action: Postmaterialism, Political Consumerism, and Political Participation. American Politics Research 42(2): 257-282.
Dahlberg, L. (2001). Democracy via cyberspace: Mapping the rhetorics and practices of three prominent camps. New Media & Society, 3(2), 157-177.
Dalton, R. J. (2008). Citizenship norms and the expansion of political participation. Political studies, 56(1), 76-98.
Davies, R. (2014). Civic crowdfunding: Participatory communities, entrepreneurs and the political economy of place. Unpublished master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Davies, R. (2015). Three provocations for civic crowdfunding. Information, Communication & Society, 18(3), 342-355.
De Zúñiga, H. G., Copeland, L., & Bimber, B. (2014). Political consumerism: Civic engagement and the social media connection. New media & society, 16(3), 488-506.
Devereux, E. (Ed.). (2007). Media studies: Key issues and debates. Los Angeles: Sage.
DeVreese, C. H. (2007). Digital renaissance: Young consumer and citizen? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 611(1), 207–216.
Diani M. (2019). Modes of coordination in political. In M. Boström, M. Micheletti, & P. Oosterveer (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Consumerism (pp. 89-109). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Díaz, J. R., & Cacheda, B. G. (2016, March). Financing social activism: Crowdfunding and advocatory social movement in Spain in times of crisis. In Proceedings of the 9th international conference on theory and practice of electronic governance (pp. 139-148). Montevideo, Uruguay.
Doan, M. A., & Toledano, M. (2018). Beyond organization-centred public relations: collective action through a civic crowdfunding campaign. Public Relations Review, 44(1), 37-46.
Dresner, S. (2014). Crowdfunding: A guide to raising capital on the Internet. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Fajardo, T. M., Townsend, C., & Bolander, W. (2018). Toward an optimal donation solicitation: Evidence from the field of the differential influence of donor-related and organization-related information on donation choice and amount. Journal of Marketing, 82(2), 142-152.
Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.
Gladwell, M. (2010). Small change: Why the revolution will not be tweeted. The New Yorker, 42-49.
Gotlieb, M. R., & Cheema, S. E. (2017). From consumer to producer: Motivations, internet use, and political consumerism. Information, Communication & Society, 20(4), 570-586.
Granovetter, M. (1983). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. Sociological theory, 1, 201-233.
Graziano, P. R., & Forno, F. (2012). Political consumerism and new forms of political participation: The Gruppi di Acquisto Solidale in Italy. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 644(1), 121-133.
Guthman, J (2009). Unveiling the unveiling: Commodity chains, commodity fetishism, and the “value” of voluntary, ethical food labels. In B, Jennifer (Eds.), Frontiers of Commodity Chain Research (pp. 190-206). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Haris, A (2018, November 15). Resistance Groups Rely on Crowdfunding to Fund Political Activism. The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved from https://freebeacon.com/issues/resistance-groups-rely-on-crowdfunding-to-fund-political-activism
Hollow, M. (2013). Crowdfunding and civic society in Europe: a profitable partnership? Open Citizenship 4(1): 68-72.
Holzer, B. (2006). Political consumerism between individual choice and collective action: social movements, role mobilization and signalling. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30(5), 405-415.
Hsieh, H. C., Hsieh, Y. C., & Vu, T. H. C. (2019). How social movements influence crowdfunding success. Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, 53, 308-320.
Inglehart R. (1997). Modernization and Postmodernization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Katz, M. A. (2011). The politics of purchasing: Ethical consumerism, civic engagement, and political participation in the United States. Department of Sociology. University of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State, Blacksburg, VA.
Kelm, O., & Dohle, M. (2018). Information, communication and political consumerism: How (online) information and (online) communication influence boycotts and buycotts. New Media & Society, 20(4), 1523-1542.
Keum, H., Devanathan, N., Deshpande, S., Nelson, M. R. and Shah, D. V. (2004). The citizen-consumer: Media effects at the intersection of consumer and civic culture, Political Communication, 21(3), 369-91.
Lee, C., Bian, Y., Karaouzene, R. and Suleiman, N. (2019). Examining the role of narratives in civic crowdfunding: Linguistic style and message substance. Industrial Management & Data Systems. doi: 10.1108/IMDS-08-2018-0370
Libert, B., & Faulk, R. (2009). Barack, Inc.: Winning business lessons of the Obama campaign. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press.
Luhmann, N. (2018). Trust and power. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Marwell, G., and Oliver, P. (1993). The critical mass in collective action: A micro- social theory, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Massey, P,. (2018). Battle of the wallets: The changing landscape of consumer activism. Retrieved from https://www.webershandwick.com/news/battle-of-the-wallets-the-changing-landscape-of-consumer-activism/
Micheletti, M. (2003). Shopping with and for Virtues. In M. Micheletti (Eds.), Political virtue and shopping (pp. 149-168). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Micheletti, M. (2010). Political virtue and shopping: Individuals, consumerism, and collective action. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Micheletti, M., Stolle, D., & Berlin, D. (2014). Sustainable citizenship: The role of citizens and consumers as agents of the environmental state. State and environment: The comparative study of environmental governance, 1, 203-236.
Mollick, E (2014). The dynamics of crowdfunding: An exploratory study. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(1): 1-16.
Monticelli, L., & della Porta, D. (2018). The Successes of Political Consumerism as a Social Movement. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Consumerism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Neilson, L. A., & Paxton, P. (2010). Social capital and political consumerism: A multilevel analysis. Social Problems, 57(1), 5-24.
Norris, P. (2002). Democratic phoenix: Reinventing political activism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Oliva, N. (2018). Crowdfunding and Civic Crowdfunding: Theoretical Features and Future Prospects. In U. Comite (Eds.), Public Management and Administration (pp. 115-126). London: IntechOpen.
Parsloe, S. M., & Holton, A. E. (2018). Boycottautismspeaks: Communicating a counternarrative through cyberactivism and connective action. Information, Communication & Society, 21(8), 1116-1133.
Petrocik, J. R. (1996). Issue ownership in presidential elections, with a 1980 case study. American journal of political science, 825-850.
Putnam, R (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Scammell, M. (2000) The internet and civic engagement: The age of the citizen consumer. Political Communication, 17: 351-355.
Steinberg, S., DeMaria, R., & Kimmich, J. (2012). The crowdfunding bible: How to raise money for any startup, video game or project. In J. Kimmich (Eds.), Read me (pp. 14-47). Northumberland, UK: Lulu Press.
Stiver, A., Barroca, L., Minocha, S., Richards, M., & Roberts, D. (2015). Civic crowdfunding research: Challenges, opportunities, and future agenda. New media & society, 17(2), 249-271.
Stiver, A., Barroca, L., Petre, M., Richards, M., & Roberts, D. (2015). Civic crowdfunding: How do offline communities engage online? Proceedings of the 2015 British HCI Conference (pp. 37-45). New York, United States: Association for Computing Machinery.
Stock, B. (1986). Texts, readers, and enacted narratives. Visible Language, 20(3), 294-301.
Stolle, D., & Micheletti, M. (2013). Political consumerism: Global responsibility in action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Sturken, M., & Cartwright, L. (2001). Practices of looking. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Teorell J., Torca M. &; Montero J. R. (2007). Political Participation: Mapping the Terrain. In J. W. van Deth, J. R. Montero, &; A. Westholm (Ed.), Citizenship and Involvement in European Democracies: A Comparative Analysis. New York, NY: Routledge.
Van Deth, J.W. (2012). Is creative participation good for democracy, in M. Micheletti and A. McFarland (Eds.), Creative participation: Responsibility-taking in the political world (pp. 148-172). Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
Verba, S., & Nie, N. H. (1972). Participation in America: Social equality and political democracy. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Vromen, A., Xenos, M. A., & Loader, B. (2015). Young people, social media and connective action: From organisational maintenance to everyday political talk. Journal of Youth Studies, 18(1), 80-100.
Ward, J. (2008). The online citizen-consumer: Addressing young people's political consumption through technology. Journal of Youth Studies, 11(5), 513-526.
Ward, J. and De Vreese, C. (2011) Political consumerism, young citizens and the Internet. Media, Culture & Society, 33, 399-413.
Wenzlaff, K. (2020). Civic Crowdfunding: Four Perspectives on the Definition of Civic Crowdfunding. In Advances in Crowdfunding (pp. 441-472). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Wodak, R. (2010). The glocalization of politics in television: Fiction or reality? European Journal of Cultural Studies, 13(1), 43-62.
Zorell, C. V., & Yang, M. (2019). Real-World Sustainable Citizenship between Political Consumerism and Material Practices. Social Sciences, 8(11), 311
Zuckerman, E. (2014). New media, new civics? Policy & Internet, 6(2), 151-168.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
傳播學院碩士在職專班
107941014
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107941014
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[EMA Program in Communication] Theses

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
101401.pdf8563KbAdobe PDF148View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing