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Title: 貝里斯、瓜地馬拉以及墨西哥原住民人權之比較研究
A Comparative study of Indigenous Human Rights in Belize, Guatemala and Mexico
Authors: 李政陽
Lewis, Aurel
Contributors: 薛健吾
Hsueh, Chien-Wu
Aurel Lewis
Keywords: 政治動員
Indigenous People
Political Mobilization
Human Rights
Latin America
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-03-02 14:54:23 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 原住民人權在政治、公民以及文化等相關議題在政治領域上都引起了極大的關注。許多中美洲國家提出了適當的研究文獻以研究大多數來自中央地理區域的馬雅人 - 也就是貝里斯、墨西哥以及瓜地馬拉的原住民。
筆者在此提出三項案例研究:分別為兩項成功的動員案例 (貝里斯瑪雅領袖聯盟以及墨西哥的薩波特克文明) 和一項失敗的動員案例 (瓜地馬拉國家革命部隊), 希望藉此研究得以闡明每個國家原住民的人權狀況並找出對三個國家人權影響較大的理論。
Indigenous human rights that are political, civil and cultural have all attracted much attention in the political arena. The Mesoamerican countries provides a suitable study as the vast majority of indigenous Mayas are situated in a central geographic bloc which are Belize, Mexico and Guatemala. While the country of Guatemala has the highest indigenous population amongst its neighboring countries, it seems that the indigenous people do not enjoy much human rights. There are difference in the degree of indigenous human rights among these three countries, and the goal of this thesis is to find out which explanations (which are democratization, modernization and mobilization) in the literature better account for this variation. The research question proposed seems to have a clear puzzle as Belize and Mexico respects human right. A deeper look into the question shows that Guatemala lacks cohesion and organizational unity that prevent the vast majority of indigenous people from improving their human rights. I present here three case studies, including two cases of successful mobilization (The case of the Maya Leaders Alliance in Belize, The Case of the Zapotecas in Mexico) and one case of unsuccessful political mobilization (The case of Guatemala National Revolutionary Unit) in hope of shedding light to the indigenous human rights situation in each country and making it clear which theory has a greater influence on human rights amongst the three countries.
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