Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/135352


Title: 中國大陸新冠肺炎假新聞特徵與事實查核研究
A Study of COVID-19 Fake News and the Fact-Check Process in Mainland China
Authors: 杜遙
Du, Yao
Contributors: 林怡潔
Lin, Yi-Chieh
杜遙
Du, Yao
Keywords: 事實查核
假新聞
健康傳播
影響層次模型
新冠肺炎
Fact-checking
Fake News
Health Communication
HOI model
COVID-19
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-06-01 15:01:35 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在新冠肺炎流行期間,雖然全球新聞媒體密切關注新冠肺炎並加以報導,然而,新冠肺炎相關的「不實訊息」仍在各種媒體上不斷流竄,造成社會成員之間的恐慌與不信任,甚至影響防疫行為。
因此,本文欲針對中國大陸在新冠疫情肺炎發生後,設立事實查核網絡專區的假新聞文本進行分析,更深入地探索不同時期的假新聞主題、形式、圖文的特徵。並分析查核文本如何拆解假新聞,使用何種查核來源以及查核新聞的敘事特徵。同時,從事實查核人員的角度出發,探究在事實查核中的方法與挑戰,以幫助事實查核機構打擊不實訊息。
本研究以2020年1月至7月中國大陸事實查核平台「騰訊較真」對於新冠肺炎相關查核文本為例,以內容分析法深入探討在疫情發展不同時期的假新聞特徵,並分析查核文本的訊息來源以及拆解假新聞之策略與論述結構。其次,根據HOI三層級對中國大陸事實查核相關人員進行訪談,探討目前事實查核人員的查核流程。最後,總結出中國大陸事實查核面臨的挑戰以及提出方法與建議。
研究發現,假新聞主題趨勢變化與疫情發展情況相吻合。新聞陳述方式以敘事型最多,其次是推論型,新聞報道型及清單型;在所述對象中,以事件為最常見,其次是某種食品╱藥品╱物品。大部分假新聞缺乏科學佐證,較多消息來源為個體網民透過社群媒體傳播。查核平台對類型結果認定為謠言類為最多,其中也有捏造、誤傳或不實資訊,亦有偽科學。
依循HOI模型的三個層級,就個人層面而言,查核記者的角色認知是黨政的喉舌,擔任反應輿論引導輿論的責任。從常規層面來看,在對訊息來源的可信度驗證上,目前主要是通過當地線人與記者聯通群,依靠數字技術手段的方式暫未形成有效地驗證體系。在判斷訊息來源的可信度上,記者主要遵循「權威性原則」、「屬地原則」、「科學性原則」以及「常識性原則」四項基本原則。而在組織層面,媒體機構受到編輯政策與組織文化的高度影響,查核新聞配合著重大突發公共衛生事件的議程設置,以達到媒體機構維持輿論穩定的責任。組織文化雖受到編輯政策的影響,但是卻為記者在查核不同議題時提供可彈性的報導空間。根據分析結果,本研究提出建議未來中國因應突發衛生公共事件及相關假新聞時之相關作為。
Since the discovery of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019, it has rapidly evolved into a severe pandemic spreading around the world within only a few months due to frequent global contact, which has tested the risk management and communication of global governments. Epidemic prevention is not just about preventing the virus and quarantining the patients. It also requires good risk communication so that the public can take appropriate measures and share correct information.
Therefore, this study aims to analyze the fake news texts in the Fact Checking Network area set up after the COVID-19 outbreak in mainland China, and further explore the theme, form and graphic features of fake news in different periods. It also analyzes how the check text deconstructs the fake news, what kind of check source is used and the narrative characteristics of the check news. And explore fact-checking methods and challenges from a fact-checker's perspective to help fact-checking agencies combat fake news.
This study takes the fact-checking texts related to COVID-19 from "Tencent's fact-checking platform" of China from January to July 2020 as examples and uses content analysis method to study the features of fake news,and the sources, strategies and structure of the verification texts. The study also uses qualitative method to analyze how journalists in mainland China conduct fact checking.
Based on the results from the empirical analysis.The findings showed that the topical trend of fake news are consistent with the development of the pandemic. The most common style of misinformation is narrative, followed by followed by inference, news report and checklist. As for the subjects, events are the most common, followed by a certain food/drug/article. Most of the fake news lacks scientific evidence, and most of the sources are individual netizens and spread through social media. The verification platform identified the most types of results as rumors, including the fabricated, misinformation or disinformation, and pseudo-science.
According to the three levels of the HOI model, from the personal level, the journalist's role perception is the gatekeeper of the party and government, taking the responsibility of reflecting public opinion and guiding public opinion. From the conventional level, the credibility verification of information sources is mainly through the connection group of local informants and journalists, and the digital technology method has not yet formed an effective verification system. Journalists mainly follow four basic principles: "authority principle", "territoriality principle", "scientific principle" and "common sense principle". At the organizational level, Organizational culture is influenced by editorial policy, but it provides flexible reporting space for reporters to check different issues.
Based on the results of the analysis, this study provides suggestions for future actions in response to public health emergencies and related fake news in China.
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Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
傳播學院傳播碩士學位學程
106464076
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106464076
Data Type: thesis
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