Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/135999


Title: 優勢觀點團體運用於緩解社區獨居長者孤獨感之成效研究
The Effective of Strengths-Based Group Intervention to Elderly People Living Alone in the Community with Loneliness
Authors: 李玉芬
LI, Yu-Fen
Contributors: 宋麗玉
Song, Li-Yu
李玉芬
LI, Yu-Fen
Keywords: 優勢觀點團體處遇
社區獨居長者
孤獨感
成效
Strength-Based Group Intervention
elderly people living alone in the community
loneliness
effectiveness
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-07-01 20:37:39 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 摘要
在人口老齡化的背景下,受家庭子女數減少、居住條件與居住觀念變化,以及人口跨地域快速流動等因素的影響,獨居已經成為大陸長者的主流居住模式。隨著獨居長者數量的日趨增長,其「孤獨感」已逐漸成為值得大家關注的社會問題。孤獨感是由某種形式的社會關係缺失,引起的令人不愉快的甚至痛苦的主觀體驗。受居住方式的限制,以及社會、文化、制度與科技等因素的影響,中國的社區獨居長者與一般長者或西方國家的獨居長者相比經歷孤獨感的風險更高。作為一種負向的情緒體驗,孤獨感會對長者的身心健康造成不利的影響,嚴重損害了社區獨居長者的健康與福祉。
目前關於長者孤獨感的干預研究以西方國家為主流,從社會關係需求、行為與人格特質、認知以及懷舊四個視角出發,依循傳統醫療取向的工作典範,分別探討相對應的干預模式。既有的干預實踐忽略了長者自身擁有的優勢與資源,對長者心理、社會與精神健康亦缺乏全方位的關注。1980年代發展自美國堪薩斯大學社會工作學院的優勢觀點,正是對社會工作實務偏向醫療模式和問題解決取向的一種反思。本研究將優勢觀點的理念、原則和方法運用於我國社區獨居長者孤獨感之干預研究,探索融入「生命歷程」視角的優勢觀點團體對於緩解社區獨居長者孤獨感的成效。
研究採用質量並行的混合研究方法,量化部分採用古典實驗設計,將根據標準選取的26位研究對象隨機分配至實驗組和控制組,實驗組接受14次優勢觀點團體處遇,採用UCLA孤獨感量表(第三版中文版)、增強權能量表和LSI-A生活满意度指数A量表(中文版),在處遇前、中(團體7次),後(團體14次)為實驗組和控制組的研究對象進行測量。除此之外,通過優勢觀點團體過程紀錄和團體結束後的深度訪談,檢驗、補充和拓展量化研究的結果。經整理,本研究的發現與結論如下:
1、「優勢觀點團體」處遇通過促進團體成員有意義的社會參與、改善團體成員的社會關係狀況和轉變團體成員的思維方式,可達到緩解社區獨居長者孤獨感狀況、改善其權能感狀況及生活滿意度狀況的處遇目標,初步證實了「優勢觀點團體」處遇的成效;
2、融入「生命歷程」視角之「優勢觀點團體」處遇對於緩解大陸社區獨居長者孤獨感之適用性與經驗:
(1)「生命歷程」視角之「優勢觀點團體」具有適用性,探索和運用團體成員優勢的過程,亦是發現和激發個體能動性的過程;融入「生命歷程」視角的優勢探索歷程與大陸長者「話當年」的內容與目標相似,未來可將「話當年」的元素和表達方式更多地融入「生命歷程」視角下的優勢探索歷程,提升其對本土文化的適應性,改善處遇效果;
(2)在以「責任倫理」為核心的中國養老文化背景下,運用優勢觀點團體處遇於緩解大陸社區獨居長者孤獨感時,需要積極適應我國的養老文化,重視獨居長者對於子代親密關係的需求;
(3)「優勢觀點」視角下開展的老年服務重視挖掘和運用長者的優勢和想望,有助於長者狀況的改善,符合大陸長者對於老年服務的需要,未來可將「優勢觀點」更多地運用於大陸的長者服務。
Abstract
In the context of an aging population, affected by factors such as the reduction in number of children in the family, changes in living conditions and living idea, and rapid population flow across regions, living alone has become the mainstream residential mode for mainland elders. With the increasing number of elderly people living alone, their "loneliness" has gradually become a social issue worthy of everyone's attention. Loneliness is an unpleasant and even painful subjective experience caused by some form of lack of social relations. Be affected with the living style,social, cultural, institutional and technological factors, elderly people living alone in the Chinese community are at higher risk of experiencing loneliness than the other elderly or those living alone in Western countries. As a negative emotional experience, loneliness will adversely affect the physical and mental health of the elderly, and seriously damage the health and well-being of the elderly living alone in the community.
The current intervention research on the loneliness of the elderly starting from the four theoretical perspectives of social relationship needs, behavior and personality traits, cognition and reminiscence, and following the traditional medical orientation work model, respectively exploring the corresponding treatment models. Existing practices ignore the strengths and resources that the elders have, and they pay little attention to the psychological, social and mental health of the elders. The strengths perspective focus on people’s strengths and resources, developed in United Stated for more than 40 years. This study applies the ideas, principles and methods of the strength perspective to the intervention research on the elders living alone in community with loneliness, and explores the effectiveness of the Strength-Based Group in alleviating the loneliness of the elders living alone in the community.
This study combined both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The quantitative part adopts classical experimental research. The 26 research subjects selected according to the standard are randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group,the experimental group accepted 14 times group intervention. Participants in all conditions completed evaluation measures before, during and after the intervention. In addition, the qualitative research tested, supplemented and expanded the results of the quantitative research. The conclusions are as follows:
1. Strength-Based Group intervention can promote meaningful social participation,improve social relations, and bring about changes in thinking patterns, thereby alleviating group members’ loneliness,improving group members’ sense of power and life satisfaction. The results have been confirmed the effectiveness of Strength-Based Group intervention.
2. The applicability and experiences of the Strength-Based Group intervention applied to alleviate the loneliness of elderly people living alone in mainland communities may be listed in the following three points.
(1) The strengths exploration process with "life course" perspective is similar to "Talking about Old times" which mainland elders always do. In the future, the elements and expressions of " Talking about Old times " can be more apply to the strength exploration process, so as to enhance its adaptability to the local culture.
(2) In the context of Chinese culture with "responsibility ethics" as the core,inspires that when the Strength-Based Group intervention applied to alleviate the loneliness of the elderly living alone in mainland communities, it is necessary to actively adapt to Chinese culture.
(3) The Strength-Based services for the elderly aims at explore and utilize the strengths and aspirations of the elderly, which can promote the "meaningful social participation",improve conditions, and meets the needs of the elderly in mainland China. In the future, the " Strength Perspective " can be applied more to the elderly services in mainland China.
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Description: 博士
國立政治大學
社會工作研究所
106264503
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106264503
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[社會工作研究所 ] 學位論文

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