Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/136544


Title: 超越菁英政治與民粹主義:論索黑爾的群眾行動理論
Beyond Elite Politics and Populism: On Georges Sorel's Theory of Mass Action
Authors: 王名釤
Wang, Ming-Shan
Contributors: 葉浩
Yeh, Hao
王名釤
Wang, Ming-Shan
Keywords: 索黑爾
慕孚
社會主義
無政府工團主義
民粹主義
多元主義
基進民主
Georges Sorel
Chantal Mouffe
Socialism
Anarcho-syndicalism
Populism
Pluralism
Radical Democracy
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-08-04 15:55:42 (UTC+8)
Abstract:   喬治.索黑爾是一位活躍在十九世紀末到二十世紀初的法國思想家與政治行動者。長期以來,由於他在理論以及實踐上被認為欠缺一致性,後世研究者大多更傾向從歷史而非理論的角度來理解他。他與法西斯主義者之間錯縱複雜的關係,也使得他更具爭議性。他所身處的十九世紀末乃至二十世紀初,意識形態中瀰漫著對僵化的議會民主的悲觀、對資本主義社會的憎惡與革命情勢陰晴不定的不安氣氛。對索黑爾而言,雖然僵化停滯的資產階級議會民主對無產階級的壓迫是可憎的,但是奠基在對某種烏托邦主義幻象的追求之上的社會主義及各種革命訴求,又有著重演雅各賓革命的瘋狂的危險。在這斯庫拉與卡律布狄斯之間,他試圖透過對菁英主義在理論與實踐兩方面的反對,開創出一條屬於群眾的行動進路。這條進路的建構又以他反理性主義的知識論為基礎。我將首先透過對索黑爾學術生涯的回顧,說明他的群眾行動理論以暴力與神話的結合為核心。接著從理性與神話、菁英與群眾、強力與暴力三個方面,對索黑爾的各家詮釋加以釐清,並以當代基進民主理論家慕孚的觀點作為索黑爾群眾行動理論與當代議題之間的橋樑。首先透過對兩者異同之比較,定位出索黑爾在當代民粹主義與菁英政治討論中的理論位置,最後則透過近年的民粹主義討論,說明索黑爾那奠基於暴力與神話的結合之上,以群眾的持續行動為核心的動態行動理論如何帶給當代民粹主義與菁英政治爭論的困境一些新的啟發。
  Georges Sorel was an active French thinker and political actor in the fin de siècle. For a long time, he's considered to be an inconsistent figure in both theoretical and practical sphere. Due to the reason, later researchers usually tend to understand him from a historical perspective instead of a theoretical one. Besides, his complicated relationship with the Fascist has also made him more controversial. His contemporary, the fin de siècle, was permeated in ideology and social atmosphere with pessimism of rigid parliamentary democracy, hatred of capitalist society and the uncertainty about the situation of the revolution. For Sorel, although the oppression of the proletariat by the rigid and stagnant bourgeois parliamentary democracy was an abomination, but socialism and other revolution demands which based on the pursuit of certain utopian illusions were also in risk of emerging again the frenzy of Jacobin revolution. Between Scylla and Charybdis, he tried to find an approach for the action of the masses through his opposition to eliteism in both theoretical and practical sphere. And, the construction of this approach was based on his anti-rationalist epistemology. At first, I will review Sorel's academic career to explain that the combination of violence and myth is the core element of his theory of mass action. Then, through the perspectives of reason and myth, elites and masses, force and violence, I will clarify the various later interpretations of Sorel, and bridge his theory and contemporary issues with the argument of Chantal Mouffe, the contemporary theorist of radical democracy. First, by comparing the similarities and differences between them, I will locate Sorel's position in the contemporary discussions of populism and elite politics. Then, accompanied with a review of recent discussions of populism, we could find some new inspirations for the debate around populism from Sorel's dynamic action theory centered on the continuous actions of the masses, which based on the combination of violence and myth.
Reference: 江宜樺
2005 〈西方“政治"概念之分析〉。《政治與社會哲學評論》,12,頁1-57。

林淑芬
2003 〈政治行動的可能性條件〉。《政治與社會哲學評論》,4,頁29-72。
2005 〈“人民”做主?民粹主義、民主與人民〉。《政治與社會哲學評論》,12,頁141-182。
2006 〈拉克勞(Ernesto Laclau)霸權理論中的敵對與異質性〉。《政治科學論叢》,30,頁97-130。

楊尚儒
2017 〈施米特思想中的主權、委任獨裁與主權獨裁〉。《政治思想史》,29,頁143-170。
2020 〈Carl Schmitt論公投及其限制:關於直接民主對代議制之挑戰所做的警告〉。《台灣政治學刊》,24(1),頁109-161。

Arendt, Hannah
1963 On Revolution.New York: Viking Press.
1972 Crises of the Republic : Lying in Politics, Civil Disobedience on Violence, Thoughts on Politics and Revolution. San Diego, Calif. : Harcourt Brace & Company.

Anselmi, Manuel
2018 Populism: An Introduction. Laura Fano Morrisey (tran.). New York: Routledge.

Babones, Salvatore
2018 The New Authoritarianism: Trump, Populism, and the Tyranny of Experts. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Bergson, Henri
2009 《時間與自由意志》吳士棟譯。北京:商務印書館。

Berlin, Isaiah
1980 Concepts and Categories: Philosophical Essays. Henry Hardy (ed.). New York: Penguin Books.
1991 Against the Current: Essays in the History of Ideas. Henry Hardy (ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Bernstein, Richard J.
2013 Violence: Thinking Without Banisters. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Brennan, Jason
2018 《反民主》劉維人譯。台北市:聯經。

Burke, Edmund
1993 Reflection on the Revolution in France. New York: Oxford University Press.

Curtis, Michael
1959 Three Against the Third Republic: Sorel, Barrès, and Maurras. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

D’Eramo, Marco
2013 “Populism and The New Oligarchy”, New Left Review, 82:5-28.
2017 “They, the People”, New Left Review, 103:129-138.

Eagleton, Terry
2020 “Citizen of Babel”, New Left Review, 122:142-147.

Eichengreen, Barry
2018 The Populist Temptation: Economic Grievance and Political Reaction in the Modern Era. New York: Oxford University Press.

Engels, Friedrich
1975 Anti-Duhring. pp5-295 in Marx and Engels Collective WorksVol.25. Moscow: Progress Publishers.

Engels, Friedrich and Marx, Karl
2004 《共產黨宣言》管中琪、黃俊龍譯。新北市:左岸。

Finchelstein, Federico
2017 From Fascism to Populism in History. Oakland, California: University of California Press.
2019 “Fascism and Populism”, pp.307-318 in Carlos de la Torre (ed.). Routledge Handbook of Global Populism. London: Routledge.

Galston, William A.
2018 Anti-Pluralism: The Populist Threat to Liberal Democracy. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang
1972 Goethe.Faust: Der Tragödie erster und zweiter Teil Urfaust. München: Verlag C. H. Beck.

Graeber, David
2014 《為什麼上街頭?新公民運動的歷史、危機和進程》湯淑君、李尚遠、陳雅馨譯。台北市:商周。

Hardt, Michael and Negri, Antonio
2000 Empire. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press.
2004 Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire. New York: Penguin Press.
2009 Commonwealth. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press.

Harvey, David
2020 “Anti-Capitalist Politics in the Time of COVID-19”. Retrieved September 24, 2020, from http://davidharvey.org/2020/03/anti-capitalist-politics-in-the-time-of-covid-19/

Horowitz, Irving Louis
2009 Radicalism and the Revolt Against Reason: the Social Theories of Georges Sorel. New York: Routledge.

Humphrey, Richard
1971 Georges Sorel: Prophet Without Honor. New York: Octagon Books.

Jennings, Jeremy R.
1985 Georges Sorel: The Character and Development of His Thought. London: The Macmillan Press.
1999 “Introduction”. pp.vii-xxi in Georges Sorel(Author), Jeremy Jennings(Ed.), Reflection on Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jung, Carl Gustav
1970 “After the Catastrophe”. pp.194-217 in Adler G. & Hull R. (Ed.), Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Volume 10: Civilization in Transition. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Kołakowski, Leszek
2005 Main Currents of Marxism.P. S. Falla(trans.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Laclau, Ernesto
1996 Emancipation(s). London: Verso.
2005 On Populist Reason. London: Verso.
2014 The Rhetorical Foundation of Society. London: Verso.

Laclau, Ernesto and Mouffe, Chantal
2001 Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics. London: Verso.
2013 “Post-Marxism without Apologies”, pp.58-87 in James Martin(ed.), Chantal Mouffe: Hegemony, Radical Democracy and the Political.London: Routledge.

Levenson, Joseph Richmond
1966 Confucian China and Its Modern Fate. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Levitas, Ruth
1990 The Concept of Utopia. London: Philip Allan.

Marx, Karl
1852 The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, Chapter I. Retrieved April 22, 2021, from Marx/Engels Internet Archive. (https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1852/18th-brumaire/ch01.htm)
1996 Capital, Volume I. in Marx / Engels Collected Works Vol.35. London: Lawrence & Wishart.

Mazzarella, William
2010 “The Myth of the Multitude, or, Who’s Afraid of the Crowd? ”, Critical Inquiry, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 697-727.

Meisel, James Hans
1950 “Sorel's Last Myth”, The Journal of Politics,Vol.12, No.1:52-65.
1982 The Genesis of Georges Sorel: an account of his formative period, followed by a study of his influence. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Mill, John Stuart
1958 Considerations on Representative Government. New York: Liberal Arts Press.

Mouffe, Chantal
1993 The Return of the Political. London: Verso.
2005a On the Political. London: Routledge.
2005b The Democratic Paradox. London: Verso.
2013a Agonistics: Thinking the World Politically. London: Verso.
2013b “Cultural Workers as Organic Intellectuals”, pp.207-215 in James Martin(ed.), Chantal Mouffe: Hegemony, Radical Democracy and the Political.
2018 For a Left Populism. London: Verso.

Müller, Jan-Werner
2017 What is populism? London: Penguin Books.

Orwell, George
1961 1984: A Novel. New York: New American Library.

Oxford Languages
2016 “Word of the Year 2016”. Retrieved December 29, 2020, from https://languages.oup.com/word-of-the-year/2016/

Peruzzotti, Enrique
2019 “Laclau’s Theory of Populism: A Critical Review”, pp.33-43 in Carlos de la Torre (ed.). Routledge Handbook of Global Populism. London: Routledge.

Portis, Larry
1980 Georges Sorel. London: Pluto Press.

Riley, Dylan
2012 “Bernstein's Heirs”, New Left Review, 76:136-150.

Roth, Jack Joseph
1980 The Cult of Violence: Sorel and the Sorelians. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Runciman, David
2019 《民主會怎麼結束》梁永安譯。新北市:立緒。

Schecter, Darrow
1990 “Two Views of the Revolution: Gramsci and Sorel, 1916–1920.” History of European Ideas 12(5): 637-653.

Schmitt, Carl
1985 The Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy. Ellen Kennedy (tran.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
2005 《政治性的概念》姚朝森譯。台北市:聯經。

Shapiro, Kam
2004 “The Myth of the Multitude.”, pp.289-314 in Paul A. Passavant and Jodi Dean (ed.). Empire's New Clothes : Reading Hardt and Negri. New York: Routledge.

Singal, Jesse
2017 “The Careful, Pragmatic Case Against Punching Nazis”. Retrieved May 23, 2019, from http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2017/08/the-careful-pragmatic-case-against-punching-nazis.html

Skinner, Quentin
2002 Visions of politics Vol.2. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, Denis Mack
1973 “Benedetto Croce: History and Politics.” Journal of Contemporary History, 8(1): 41-61.

Snyder, Timothy
2019 《暴政》劉維人譯。新北市:聯經。

Sorel, Georges
1889 Contribution à l'Étude Profane de la Bible. Paris: Auguste Ghio, Éditeur.
1909 La Révolution Dreyfusienne. Paris: Marcel Rivière.
1947 Lettres a Paul Delesalle. Paris: Édition Bernard Grasset.
1950 Reflections on Violence. T. E. Hulme (tran.). Illinois: The Free Press.
1969 The Illusions of Progress. John and Charlotte Stanley (trans.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
1976a “From The Trial of Socrates”, pp.62-70 in John L. Stanley (ed.), John and Charlotte Stanley (trans.), From Georges Sorel: Essays in Socialism and Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.
1976b “From Critical Essays on Marxism”, pp.111-175 in John L. Stanley (ed.), John and Charlotte Stanley (trans.), From Georges Sorel: Essays in Socialism and Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.
1976c “The Ethics of Socialism”, pp.94-110 in John L. Stanley (ed.), John and Charlotte Stanley (trans.), From Georges Sorel: Essays in Socialism and Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.
1978 Commitment and Change: Georges Sorel and the Idea of Revolution. Essay and Translations by Richard Vernon. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
1984 Social Foundations of Contemporary Economics. John L. Stanley (tran.). New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
1990a “Experimentation in Modern Physics”, pp.139-176 in John L. Stanley (ed.), John and Charlotte Stanley (trans.), From Georges Sorel: Volume 2, Hermeneutics and the Sciences. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
1990b “Marxism and Social Science”, pp.177-190 in John L. Stanley (ed.), John and Charlotte Stanley (trans.), From Georges Sorel: Volume 2, Hermeneutics and the Sciences. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
2009 The Decomposition of Marxism, pp.209-254 in Irving Louis Horowitz Radicalism and the Revolt Against Reason: the Social Theories of Georges Sorel.New York: Routledge.
2016 La Ruine du Monde Antique: Conception Matérialiste de L’histoire[Éd.1902]. Paris: Hachette Livre BNF.

Stanley, John L.
1979 “Sorel and the Social Uncertainty Principle”, Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory/Revue canadienne de theorie politique etsociale, Vol. 3, No. 3:83-94.
1981 The Sociology of Virtue: The Political and Social Theories of George Sorel. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Timpanaro, Sebastiano
1974 “Considerations on Materialism”, New Left Review, I/85:3-22.

Tocqueville, Alexis de
2002 Democracy in America. Henry Reeve(tran.). New York: Bantam Books.

Traverso, Enzo
2019 The New Faces of Fascism: Populism and the Far Right. David Broder(trans.). London: Verso.

Vajda, Mihály
2015 《作為群眾運動的法西斯主義》孫建茵譯。哈爾濱:黑龍江大學出版社。

Vernon, Richard
1978 Commitment and Change: Georges Sorel and the Idea of Revolution. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Description: 博士
國立政治大學
政治學系
101252505
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0101252505
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[政治學系] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
250501.pdf15674KbAdobe PDF34View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing