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Title: R&D經濟成長與政府最適政策的三個議題
Three essays on R&D-driven endogenous growth and optimal policy
Authors: 余博揚
Yu, Po-Yang
Contributors: 賴景昌
Lai, Ching-Chong
Yu, Po-Yang
Keywords: 經濟成長
Economic growth
Intellectual property rights
Trade liberalization
Monetary policy
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-08-04 15:57:12 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 鑒於近期經濟成長的研究大多認為一國研究發展的投入對於該國的經濟成長有著關鍵的影響,因此何種政府政策能有效的調整該國研究發展的投入達到最佳的社會福利,即成為近年熱門的研究議題。本論文嘗試建立一系列品質階梯式提升的R&D成長模型,用以探討過去鮮少於R&D經濟成長領域中被提及的政府政策,重新審視其政策於經濟體運行的機制與經濟邏輯,並提供政府不同於過去研究面向的政策建議。博士論文中的第二章節,我們建立一個具R&D驅動成長特性的動態一般均衡經濟模型進行民營化政策的分析,並提出合理的經濟邏輯解釋為何國營企業的生產力低於民營企業。我們發現部分民營化政策可以是政府最適的民營化政策,且國營企業的生產力低於民營企業為廠商決策行為的結果。第三章節則是建構一個開放的南北國R&D驅動成長特性的成長模型,並討論貿易自由化後進口關稅的降低如何影響兩國的經濟變數。有別於過去文獻的設計,政府可將進口關稅收入投入於有利於廠商生產力的基礎建設之中,我們發現北國降低進口關稅會使得兩國的相對工資惡化。接續我們使用數值模擬的方式發現兩國的最適進口關稅取決於基礎建設的外部性大小而定,且加強智慧財產權保護政策不一定會傷害發展中國家的社會福利。第四章節我們拓展貨幣型的R&D經濟成長模型,藉由R&D廠商可自由選擇研發規模下,內生化廠商加成訂價比例,重新審視智慧財產權保護政策與貨幣政策於經濟體系所扮演的角色。在此模型下,提高智慧財產權保護程度對於經濟成長率的影響是不確定的。當政府考量社會福利下,制定的最適名目利率不會趨近於零,因此傅利曼法則不會成立。
This dissertation constructs three distinct models of R&D-driven endogenous growth and employs them to analyze the effects of government policies on economic growth and social welfare. Chapter 2 builds up an R&D-driven endogenous growth model featuring state-owned enterprises in R&D sectors. We find that privatization is favorable to economic growth while the effect of privatization on social welfare is ambiguous. As a result, a partial privatization could be an optimal policy in our analysis. Moreover, we clearly interpret why private enterprises have higher productivity than state-owned enterprises. Chapter 3 sets up an R&D-driven endogenous growth model featuring North-South trade and technology transfer that is able to examine how the trade liberalization policy affects relative wage and social welfare between two countries. We show that the trade liberalization policy of the north country will lead to a decrease in relative wages, and that optimal tariffs imposed two countries are crucially related to public spending externalities. In addition, we show that the effect of expansion of patent protection on social welfare of the south country is ambiguous. Chapter 4 constructs a monetary R&D-driven endogenous growth model featuring endogenous innovation scales and the price-marginal cost markup. Under this model, an increase in the nominal interest rate decreases economic growth and the effect of expansion of patent protection on economic growth is ambiguous. Our analysis reveals that the Friedman rule fails to be optimal in view of the social welfare maximum. Moreover, we also discuss that how the optimal monetary policy is related to endogenous innovation scales and the price-marginal cost markup.
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