Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Taiwanese College Students’ Motivation, Achievement, Satisfaction and Strategy for Learning Vietnamese
Sai, Ngoc Phung
Sai, Ngoc Phung
|Issue Date:||2021-08-04 16:13:24 (UTC+8)|
This research aims to understand the relationships between learning motivation, teaching satisfaction, learning strategies and learning achievements of Taiwanese college students in learning Vietnamese. It is expected that based on the findings, teaching can be improved to enhance students' learning motivation and learning effectiveness. This research is divided into:
Study 1: This study examined the relationships among learning motivation, academic achievement and learning satisfaction of college students in Taiwan, by using a quantitative analysis method.
Study 2: This study explored the internalization of students' learning motivation and its relationship with their learning outcome by analyzing the teachers' observation records and students’ comments. The teacher’s support in students' basic needs as posited in Self-determination theory (SDT) was also reflected in this study.
Study 3: In order to understand the correlation between Vietnamese learning strategies, learning achievements and learning motivations, this study investigates whether students’ use of learning strategies can be predicted by their learning motivations, and whether their academic achievements can be predicted by their learning strategies, through a mixed methods of data analysis.
Based on the results of the three above-listed studies, this study found that:
1. There are more students with extrinsic motivation than there are with intrinsic motivation. Those with internal motivation and integrated regulation gain learning achievements and deeper learning.
2. The support of the psychological needs of the SDT theory provided by teachers is helpful to the learning motivation and learning outcomes of Vietnamese language learners.
3. The main learning strategies used by Vietnamese learners include: cognitive strategies, social strategies, and memory strategies. Among them, cognitive strategies are helpful to their academic performance, listening ability, and writing ability. Memory strategies are also helpful to learners' listening ability, but social strategies have no influence on any learning strategies. In addition, only memory strategies are related to intrinsic motivation.
Based on the above results, this study provides suggestions for Vietnamese language teaching and learning.
Ainley, M. (2006). Connecting with learning: Motivation, affect and cognition in interest processes. Education Psychology Review, 18(4), 391-405.
Alamri, M. M. (2019). Students' academic achievement performance and satisfaction in a flipped classroom in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 11(1), 103-119. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJTEL.2019.096786
Apriliyanti, R., Warsono, W., & Mujiyanto, J. (2018). The correlation between interest, motivation, English self-concept and English speaking performance in nursing students. English Education Journal, 8 (2),138-147.
Ardasheva, Y., & Tretter, T. R. (2012). Perceptions and use of language learning strategies among ESL teachers and ELLs. TESOL Journal, 3(4) , 552-585.
Ardeo, J. M. G. (2016). Learning motivation and strategies of ESP university students. Revista De Lenguas Para Fines Específicos, 22(1), 141-169.
Baard, P.P., Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2004). Intrinsic need satisfaction: a motivational basis of performance and well-being in two work settings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(10), 2045-2068. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb02690.x.
Bailey, D., Al-Musharraf, N., & Hatche, R. (2020). Finding satisfaction: Intrinsic motivation for synchronous and asynchronous communication in the online language learning context. Education and Information Technologies, 26, 2563-2583.
Ball, S. (1982). Motivation. In H. E. Mitzel, J. H. Best, & W. Rabinowitz (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Educational Research (5th ed., pp. 1256-1263). Free Press.
Bialystok, E., & Fröhlich, M. (1978). Variables of classroom achievement in second language learning. Modern Language Journal, 62(7), 327-336.
Boekaerts, M. (2011). Emotions, emotion regulation, and self-regulation of learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance (pp.408-425). Routledge.
Bolkan, S., Goodboy, A. K., & Kelsey, D. M. (2016). Instructor clarity and student motivation: Academic performance as a product of students’ ability and motivation to process instructional material. Communication Education, 65(2), 129-148. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634523.2015.1079329
Brown, A. L., & Palinscar, A. S. (1982). Inducing strategies learning from texts by means of informed self-control training. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities, 2(1), 1-17.
Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, S. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X018001032
Catalano, A. (2015). The effect of a situated learning environment in a distance education information literacy course. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(5), 653-659. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2015.06.008
Chan, K. W., Wong, A. K. Y., & Lo, E. S. C. (2012). Relational analysis of intrinsic motivation, achievement goals, learning strategies and academic achievement for Hong Kong secondary students. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 21(2), 230-243. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279584541
Chang, C. H., & Ordu, G. (2013). Language learning strategy use and language learning motivation of Taiwanese EFL university students. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 10(2), 196-209.
Chang, I. Y., & Chang, W. Y. (2012). The effect of student learning motivation on learning satisfaction. The International Journal of Organizational Innovation, 4(3), 281-305.
Chang, Y. K., Chen, S., Tu, K. W., & Chi, L. K. (2016). Effect of autonomy support on self-determined motivation in elementary physical education. Journal of sports science & medicine, 15(3), 460-466. http://www.jssm.org
Chen, H. B., Chiu, W.-C., & Wang, C.-C. (2015). The relationship among academic self-concept, learning strategies, and academic achievement: a case study of national vocational college students in Taiwan via SEM. Asia-Pacific Education Research, 24(2), 419–431. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-014-0194-1
Chen, P. S., & Chih, J. T. (2012). The relations between learner motivation and satisfaction with aspects of management training. International Journal of Management, 29(2), 545-561.
Chen, R.-Y., & Tu, J.-F. (2019). The computer course correlation between learning satisfaction and learning effectiveness of vocational college in Taiwan. Symmetry, 11(6), 822, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11060822
Chen, C.-A., Chen, D.-Y., & Xu, C. (2018). Applying self-determination theory to understand public employee’s motivation for a public service career: An East Asian case (Taiwan). Public Performance & Management Review, 41(2), 365-389. https://doi.org/10.1080/15309576.2018.1431135
Chin, W. W. (1998). Commentary: Issues and opinion on structural equation modeling. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 22(1), 7-16.
Chue, K. L., & Nie, Y. (2016). International students’ motivation and learning approach: A comparison with local students. Journal of International Students, 6(3), 678-699.
Cole, J. S., Bergin, D. A., & Whittaker, T. A. (2008). Predicting student achievement for low stakes tests with effort and task value. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 609-624.
Daskalovska, N., Gudeva, L. K., & Ivanovska, B. (2012). Learner motivation and interest. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 1187-1191.
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
Deci, E.L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 627-668. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627
Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). The pervasive negative effects of reward on intrinsic motivation: Response to Cameron (2001). Review of Educational Research, 71(1), 29-42. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543071001043
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Plenum.
Duarte, S. A., & Escobar, L. A. (2008). Using adapted material and its impact on university students’ motivation. Profile Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 9(1), 63-87. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=169213804005
El-Adl, A., & Alkharusi, H. (2020). Relationships between self-regulated learning strategies, learning motivation and mathematics achievement. Cypriot Journal of Educational Science, 15(1), 104-111. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v15i1.4461
Feng, C. H. (2010). A correlational study of language learning motivation and strategies of Chinese undergraduates. Canadian Social Science, 6(4), 202-209.
Franklin, A. E., Burns, P., & Lee, C. S. (2014). Psychometric testing on the NLN student satisfaction and self-confidence in learning, simulation design scale, and educational practices questionnaire using a sample of pre-licensure novice nurses. Nurse Education Today, 34(10), 1298-1304.
Frederick-Recascino, C. M. (2004). Self-determination theory and participation motivation research in the sport and exercise domain. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 277-294). University of Rochester Press.
Geoffrey, C. W. ( 2004). Improving patient’s health through supporting the autonomy of patients and providers. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 233-250). University of Rochester Press.
Grant, A. M., & Shin, J. (2012). Work motivation: Directing, energizing, and maintaining effort (and research). In R. M. Ryan (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of human motivation. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195399820.013.0028
Griffiths, C., & Parr, J. M. (2000). Language learning strategies, nationality, independence and proficiency. Independence, 28, 7-10.
Griffiths, C., & Parr, J. M. (2001). Language-learning strategies: Theory and perception. English Language Teaching, 55(3), 247-254. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/55.3.247
Hadwin, A., Järvelä, S., & Miller, M. (2018). Self-regulation, co-regulation, and shared regulation in collaborative learning environments. In D. H. Schunk & J. A. Greene (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (2nd ed., pp. 83-106). Routledge.
Hayati, A. M., & Jalilifar, A. (2009). The impact of note-taking strategies on listening comprehension of EFL learners. English Language Teaching, 2(1), 101-111. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v2n1p101
Ho, Y. R. (2019). A passion for English learning? Comparing the English learning motivations and self-perceived English proficiency between two types of college students in Taipei, Taiwan. Bulletin of Educational Psychology, 50(3), 529-549. https://doi.org/10.6251/BEP.201903_50(3).0007
Hou, Y.-A. (2009). An investigation of perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategy use, and English achievement: A case study of Taiwanese EFL students (Doctoral Dissertation). La Sierra University.
Hsiao, T, Y., & Oxford, R. L. (2002). Comparing theories of language learning strategies: A confirmatory factor analysis. Modern Language Journal, 86(3), 368-383. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00155
Hsieh, T.-L (2014). Motivation matters? The relationship among different types of learning motivation, engagement behaviors and learning outcomes of undergraduate students in Taiwan. High Education, 68(3), 417-433. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-014-9720-6
Hsu, H. T. (2018). L2 learning motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory: A qualitative case study of hospitality and tourism students in Taiwan. In S. Madya, F. A.Hamied, W. A. Renandya, C. Coombe, & Y. Basthomi (Eds.), ELT in Asia in the digital era: Global citizenship and identity (pp. 221-228). Routledge.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.
Hu, P., & Zhang, J. A (2017). Pathway to learner autonomy: A self-determination theory perspective. Asia Pacific Education Review, 18(1), 147-157.
Huang, S. C. (2019). Learning experience reigns—Taiwanese learners’ motivation in learning eight additional languages as compared to English. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 40(7), 576-589 .
Hunt, R., & King, M. (1971). The intrinsic-extrinsic concept: A review and evaluation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 10(4), 339-356.
Jeffries, P. R., & Rizzolo, M. A. (2006). Designing and implementing models for the innovative use of simulation to teach nursing care of Ill adults and children: A national, multi-site, multi-method study. National League for Nursing.
Karlen, Y., Suter, F., Hirt, C., & Merki, K. M. (2019). The role of implicit theories in students' grit, achievement goals, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and achievement in the context of a long-term challenging task. Learning and Individual Differences, 74, 101757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2019.101757
Khalil, A. (2005). Assessment of language learning strategies used by Palestinian EFL learners. Foreign Language Annals, 38(1), 108-117. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1944-9720.2005.TB02458.X
Ko, W.-H., & Chung, F.-M. (2014). Teaching quality, learning satisfaction, and academic performance among hospitality students in Taiwan. World Journal of Education, 4(5), 11-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.5430/wje.v4n5p11
Lamb, M. & Arisandy, F. E. (2020). The impact of online use of English on motivation to learn. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 33(1-2), 85-108.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford University Press.
Lee, J. Q., McInerney, D. M., Liem, G. A. D., & Ortiga, Y. P. (2010). The relationship between future goals and achievement goal orientations: An intrinsic-extrinsic motivation perspective, Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(4), 264-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.04.004
Lee, Y.-J. (2008). A study of the influence of instructional innovation on learning satisfaction and study achievement. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 4(2), 43-54. http://www.hraljournal.com/Page/6%20Yu-Je%20Lee.pdf
Lemos, M. S., & Veríssimo, L. (2014). The relationships between intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and achievement, along elementary school. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, 930-938. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1251
Lin, C, H., Zhang, Y, N., & Zheng, B, B. (2017). The roles of learning strategies and motivation in online language learning: A structural equation modeling analysis. Computers & Education, 113, 75-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.05.014
Lin, S. T., & Zhang, J. L. (2016). A questionnaire-based validation of multidimensional models of self-regulated learning strategies. The Modern Language Journal, 100(3), 674-701. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12339
Lin, Y. G., McKeachie, W. J., & Kim, Y. C. (2003). College student intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivation and learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 13(3), 251-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1041-6080(02)00092-4
Lin, Y.-T. (2019). Taiwanese EFL learners’ willingness to communicate in English in the classroom: Impacts of personality, affect, motivation, and communication confidence. Asia-Pacific Education Research, 28(2), 101-113. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-018-0417-y
Magogwe, J. M., & Oliver, R. (2007). The relationship between language learning strategies, proficiency, age and self-efficacy beliefs: A study of language learners in Botswana. System, 35(3), 338-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2007.01.003
Murray, B. (2010). Students’ language learning strategy use and achievement in the Korean as a foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 43(4), 624-634. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01105.x
Naiman, N., Fröhlich, M., & Todesco, A. (1978). The good language learner. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
Nata, R. (2004). Progress in education. Nova Publishers.
Ng, J. Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C., Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Duda, J. L., & Williams, G. C. (2012). Self-determination theory applied to health contexts a meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(4), 325-340.
Nguyen, T. L., Nguyen, T. G., & Nguyen, V. C. (2019). Foreign Students’ motivation in Vietnamese Language Course at Faculty of Vietnamese Studies, University of Social Science and Humanities – Ho Chi Minh City National University, Vietnam. University of Social Science and Humanities – Ho Chi Minh City National University. http://www.vns.edu.vn/index.php/en/researches/vietnamese-linguistics-and-teaching-vietnamese-as-a-second-language/702-foreign-studentsa-motivation-in-vietnamese-language-course-at-faculty-of-vietnamese-studies-university-of-social-science-and-humanities-a-ho-chi-minh-city-national-university-vietnam
Nguyen, T. N., & Nguyen Th. D. P. (2019). Advantages of Chineses-speaking learners in studying Vietnamese. In L. Giang, T. T. H. Ha, D. T. Huynh, T. N. Nguyen, V. P. Nguyen, M. Nohira, M. N. T. Tran, I. Yu, & W. V. T. Chiung (Eds.), Issues of teaching vietnamese and studying Vietnam in the today’s world: The 4th International Conference of Vietnamese Studies (pp. 448-464). VNU HCM Press. (In Vietnamese).
Niemiec, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 133-144. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878509104318
Noels, K. A., Pelletier, L. G., Clément, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (2008). Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self‐determination theory. Language Learning, 50(1), 57-58. https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00111
Núñez, J. L., & León, J. (2016). The mediating effect of intrinsic motivation to learn on the relationship between student’s autonomy support and vitality and deep learning. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 19(e42), 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2016.43
O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Kupper, L., & Russo, R. P. (1985a). Learning strategies used by beginning and intermediate ESL students. Language Learning, 35(1), 21-46.
O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Kupper, L., & Russo, R. P. (1985b). Learning strategy applications with students of English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 19(3), 557-584.
OECD. (2012). PISA 2012 technical report.
Olivares-Cuhat, G. (2013). Relative importance of learning variables on L2 performance. Linguistik Online, 43(3), 99-16. https://doi.org/10.13092/lo.43.415
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Newbury House.
Oxford, R. L. (1994). Language learning strategies: An update. Eric Digest.
Oxford, R. L. (2003). Language learning styles and strategies: An overview. Gala, 1-25. https://web.ntpu.edu.tw/~language/workshop/read2.pdf
Panadero, E. (2017). A Review of self-regulated learning: Six models and four directions for research. Frontiers Psychology, 422(8), 1-28. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.0042
Perez-Sanagustín, M., Merino, P. G. M., Alario-Hoyos, C., Soldani, X., & Kloos, C. D. (2015). Lessons learned from the design of situated learning environments to support collaborative knowledge construction. Computers & Education, 87, 70-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.019
Pink, D. H. (2018). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us (K. Ngoc & T. Nguyet Trans.). Lao Dong Xa Hoi Press. (Original work published 2009). (In Vietnamese)
Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 385-407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-004-0006-x
Pintrich, P. R., & Garcia, T. (1991). Student goal orientation and self-regulation in the college classroom. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Goals and self-regulatory processes (Vol. 7, pp. 371-402). JAI Press.
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.
Reeve, J. (2004). Self-determination theory applied to educational settings. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 183-202). University of Rochester Press.
Renzulli, S. J. (2015). Using learning strategies to improve the academic performance of university students on academic probation. NACADA Journal, 35(1), 29-41.
Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M. (2018). Self-determination theory in human resource development: new directions and practical considerations. Advances in Developing Human Resources 20(2), 133-147.
Rubin, J. (1981). Study of cognitive processes is second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 117-131. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/II.2.117
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000a). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1020
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000b). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.
Sadi, O., & Uyar, M. (2013). The relationship between self-efficacy, self-regulated learning strategies and achievement: A path model. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 12(1), 21-33.
Sardegna, V. G., Lee, J., & Kusey, C. (2018). Self-efficacy, attitudes, and choice strategies for English pronunciation learning. Language Learning, 68(1), 83-114. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12263
Scogin, S. C. (2016). Identifying the factors leading to success: How an innovative science curriculum cultivates student motivation. Journal Science Education Technology, 25(3), 375-393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-015-9600-6
Shaikh, A. A., Aldarmahi, A. A., AL-Sanie, E., Subahi, A., Ahmed, M. E., Hydrie, M. Z., & Al-Jifree, H. (2019). Learning styles and satisfaction with educational activities of Saudi health science university students. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 14(5), 418-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2019.07.002
Shawer, S. F. (2016). Four language skills performance, academic achievement, and learning strategy use in preservice teacher training programs. TESOL Journal, 7(2), 262-303.
Shin, M. H. (2018). Effects of project-based learning on students’ motivation and self-efficacy. English Teaching, 73(1), 95-114.
Shyr, W.-J., Feng, H.-Y., Zeng, L.-W., Hsieh, Y.-M., & Shih, C.-Y. (2017). The relationship between language learning strategies and achievement goal orientations from Taiwanese engineering students in EFL learning. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education, 13(10), 6431-6443. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/76660
Suarman (2015). Teaching quality and students satisfaction: The intermediary role of relationship between lecturers and students of the higher learning institutes. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2), 626-632. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n2p626
Tsai, Y. R. (2012). Investigating the relationships among cognitive learning styles, motivation and strategy use in reading English as a foreign language. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(13), 188-197.
Unver, V., Basak, T., Watts, P., Gaioso, V., Moss, J., Tastan, S., Iyigun, E., & Tosun, N. (2017). The reliability and validity of three questionnaires: The "student satisfaction and self-confidence in learning scale", "Simulation design scale" and "Educational practices questionnaire". Contemporary Nurse, 53(1), 60-74.
Vallerand, R. J., & Bissonnette, R. (1992). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational styles as predictors of behavior: A prospective study. Journal of Personality, 60(3), 599-620. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00922.x
Vallerand, R. J., & Ratelle, C. F. (2004). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: A hierarchical model. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 4-37). University of Rochester Press.
Van, T. D., Nguyen, K. C. T., & Tran, H. P. T. (2020). Data survey on the factors affecting students’ satisfaction and academic performance among private universities in Vietnam. Data in Brief, 33, 106357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106357
Varasteh, H., Ghanizadeh, A., & Akbari, O. (2016). The role of task value, effort-regulation, and ambiguity tolerance in predicting EFL learners’ test anxiety, learning strategies, and language achievement. Psychol Stud, 61(1), 2-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-015-0351-5
Vrugt, A., & Oort, F. J. (2008). Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement. Metacognition Learning, 3(2), 123-146.
Vu, D. N. (2008). The channels to receive and accumulate capital of Chinese in Vietnamese learning. Language, 11, 41-47. (In Vietnamese).
Wang, Y., Peng, H. M., Huang, R. H., Hou, Y. H., & Wang, J. J. (2008). Characteristics of distance learners: Research on relationships of learning motivation, learning strategy, self‐efficacy, attribution and learning results. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 23(1), 17-28. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680510701815277
Xu, X. (2011). The relationship between language learning motivation and the choice of language learning strategies among Chinese graduates. International Journal of English Linguistics, 1(2), 203-212.
Yabukoshi, T., & Takeuchi, O. (2009). Language learning strategies used by lower secondary school learners in a Japanese EFL context. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(2), 136-172. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2009.00221.x
Yang, N, D. (1999). The relationship between EFL learners’ beliefs and learning strategy use. System, 27(4), 515-535. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00048-2
Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Song, Y. & Gong, Z. (2016). The different relations of extrinsic, introjected, identified regulation and intrinsic motivation on employees’ performance: Empirical studies following self-determination theory. Management Decision, 54 (10), 2393-2412. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-01-2016-0007
Zhu, Y., & Leung, F.K.S. (2011). Motivation and achievement: Is there an East Asian model? International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9(5), 1189-1212.
Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 329-339. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1999
Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation, (2nd ed., pp.13-40). Academic Press.
|Appears in Collections:||[教育學系] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.